Manal Al-Wahbi, George Kernohan, Carol Curran

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In Saudi Arabia nursing care is provided by both Saudi and foreign nurses. Foreign nurses make up66.4% of the total nursing workforce. As a result the workforce is multicultural and more than 40languages are spoken. This paper identifies and addresses the cultural competence experience ofregistered nurses in 5 hospitals in Jeddah city. It explores the relationship between educationalexperience and the nurses' experience and ability to deliver culturally competent nursing care. Thisqualitative study used the Three Dimensional Puzzle Model of culturally congruent care as aframework. An interview guide with a piloted list of questions developed from the 4 theory constructsdescribed in the puzzle model was followed. Semi structured interviews were used for qualitative datacollection. Sixteen interviews were carried out in 4 hospitals in the western region of Saudi Arabia.Five different themes emerged: culture diversity, culture awareness and knowledge, culture attitude andsensitivity, language facilitation and organizational support. Results showed that there were gaps incultural competency in the multicultural nursing workforce in Saudi Arabia and that leaders in healthcare should be aware of and address these issues. In conclusion this study makes an importantcontribution to new knowledge in the fieldof cultural diversity for both the patient and the nurse inSaudi Arabia.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)325-342
JournalHumanities and Social Sciences Review
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 20 Dec 2014

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  • Cultural diversity
  • Cultural awareness
  • Culture sensitivity
  • Culture competence
  • Multicultural health care organization
  • Saudi Arabia



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