Over the last decade there have been significant developments in Brain Computer Interface (BCI) technology, mainly driven by research funding initiatives. Accuracy, reliability, usability and aesthetics have all improved and there has been significant effort to transfer this technology from the research lab to the wider community. Commercial products are starting to become available. But who will be the ultimate beneficiaries of the technology? Will BCI benefit people with severe communication difficulties or will it find application as the latest augmentation modality for healthy people in pursuit of new ways to interact with the digital world? Ethical issues of autonomy of the person and justice associated with BCI are explored.
|Publication status||Published - 26 Jun 2013|
Bibliographical noteReference text: ABC news (2013), Day's brain training boosts his golf form, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2013-03-06/days-brain-training-boosts-his-golf-form/4555902, accessed April 2013.
Allison, B. (2011), Future BNCI Roadmap, http://future-bnci.org/images/stories/Future_BNCI_Roadmap.pdf, accessed April 2013.
Bauby J.D. (1988). The Diving Bell and the Butterfly: A Memoir of Life in Death. Jeremy Leggatt (Translator), Vintage Books; 1st Vintage International edition.
BBC news website (2013) Nicklinson case is about 'right to kill', says Royal College of Physicians, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-19287568, accessed April 2013.
Beauchamp, T.L., Childress J.F. (2009), Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Oxford University Press, Inc.
Blain-Moraes S., Schaff R., Gruis K. L., Huggins J. E., & Wren P. A. (2012), Barriers to and mediators of brain–computer interface user acceptance: Focus group findings. Ergonomics, 55(5), 516-525.
Brain Communication Foundation (2013), www.braincommunication.org/index.php, accessed April 2013.
Buch E., Weber C., Cohen L.G., Braun C., Dimyan M.A., Ard T., Mellinger J., Caria A., Soekadar S., Fourkas A., and Birbaumer, N. (2008), Think to move: a neuromagnetic brain-computer interface (BCI) system for chronic stroke. Stroke, 39, Mar., 910–917.
Cahill, M. (2005). The Ethical Consequences of Modafinil Use. Penn Bioethics Journal, Vol. I, Issue 1, Spring 2005, http://www.bioethicsjournal.com/past/pbj1.1_cahill.pdf, accessed May 2013.
Farah M.J. (2012). Neuroethics: The Ethical, Legal and Societal Impact of Neuroscience. Annual Review of Psychology, 63, 571–591.
Grass, A. M. (1984). The Electroencephalographic Heritage., Grass Instrument Company, Quincy, USA.
Human Brain project, http://www.humanbrainproject.eu/, accessed May 2013.
Intendix. www.intendix.com, accessed April 2013.
Kübler, A. (2013). Brain-computer interfacing: science fiction has come true. Brain.
Nijboer, F., Clausen, J., Allison B. Z., & Haselager P. (2011), The asilomar survey: Stakeholders’ opinions on ethical issues related to brain-computer interfacing. Neuroethics, 1-38
Nijboer F. and Broermann U. (2010) Brain-Computer Interfaces for Communication and Control in Locked-in Patients, In Eds: B. Graimann, G. Pfurtscheller, B. Allison: Brain-Computer Interfaces, pp185-201, Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2010.
Nijholt A., Reuderink B. & Oude Bos D. (2009), Turning shortcomings into challenges: Brain-computer interfaces for games, Intelligent Technologies for Interactive Entertainment, Springer, pp. 153-168.
Obama proposes brain mapping project (2013). http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-22007007, accessed April 2013.
Pfurtscheller, G., Solis-Escalante, T., Ortner, R., Linortner, P., & Müller-Putz, G. R. (2010). Self-paced operation of an SSVEP-Based orthosis with and without an imagery-based “brain switch:” a feasibility study towards a hybrid BCI. IEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering, 18(4), 409-14. IEEE.
Pineda J., Brang D.,Hecht E., Edwards L, Carey S., Bacon M., Futagaki C., Suk D., Tom J., Birnbaum C., and Rork A. (2008), Positive behavioural and electrophysiological changes following neurofeedback training in children with autism. Res Autism Spect Disord, 2, Jul., 557–581
Sellers E.W., Vaughan T. M., Wolpaw J.R. (2010), A brain-computer interface for long-term independent home use, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, 2010; 11: 449–455.
Vlek R. J., Steines D., Szibbo D., Kübler A., Schneider M. J., Haselager P., et al. (2012). Ethical issues in Brain–Computer interface research, development, and dissemination. Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy, 36(2), 94.
Wolpaw, J. R., et al. "Brain-computer interface technology: a review of the first international meeting." IEEE transactions on rehabilitation engineering 8.2 (2000): 164-173.
Wolpaw J. R., Birbaumer N., McFarland D. J. Pfurtscheller G., Vaughan T. M. (2002) Brain–computer interfaces for communication and control. Clinical Neurophysiology 113 767–791.