Background: The primary aim of the current study was to establish the cutoffs scores for the Subjective Traumatic Outlook (STO), a relatively new tool that examines the introspective worldview of those exposed to traumatic events. This tool was developed as a complementary scale to be used in conjunction with the observed-phenomenological measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) complex PTSD (CPTSD). The present study examines the predictive power of STO for distinguishing between PTSD and CPTSD in African countries. Method: A national representative (based on age and gender) sample of 2,554 participants was drawn from 3 African countries (Nigeria, Kenya, and Ghana) who completed the International Trauma Questionnaire (ITQ) and the STO. We conducted a set of analyses examining that alignment of ITQ probable PTSD and CPTSD and different STO cutoff scores. Results: Results suggest that the STO single-factor structure was stable across countries, had a strong association with PTSD and CPTSD levels, and had predictive utility in differentiating between PTSD and CPTSD. Moreover, we found that there are different cutoffs for the STO in the different countries. Conclusion: There is a strong but distinctive association between the introspective and the observed-phenomenological approaches of PTSD and CPTSD. Our findings call for more integrative approaches for the assessment of PTSD and CPTSD and suggest that there are cultural differences in STO.
|Journal||Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy|
|Early online date||17 Sep 2020|
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - 17 Sep 2020|
- Complex PTSD
- Subjective traumatic outlook