Characterization of the brachial artery shear stress following walking exercise

Jaume Padilla, Ryan Harris, Lawrence D Rink, Janet P Wallace

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    34 Citations (Scopus)


    Habitual exercise provides repeated episodes of elevated vascular shearstress (SS), which may be a mechanism for repair of endothelial dysfunction in disease.Our aim was to determine the brachial artery SS during the 3–hour period followingsingle bouts of low, moderate, and high-intensity walking exercise. In a randomized crossover design, 14 men walked for 45 minutes on a treadmill at 25%, 50% and 75% of VO2peak separated by 2–7 days. Using Doppler ultrasonography, brachial artery SS was assessed immediately after exercise and then hourly for 3 hours. Highintensity walking elicited greater (p <0.05) post-exercise SS compared with low and moderate intensity. In addition, a 3 × 4 (intensity × time) ANOVA indicated an absence of interaction (p = 0.369) and a decline in post-exercise SS over time (p <0.0001) which was abolished after 2 hours. Thus, we found that brachial artery SS is greatestfollowing high-intensity walking and that the rate of decline in SS is similar across allwalking intensities.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)105-111
    JournalVascular Medicine
    Publication statusPublished - 2008

    Bibliographical note

    Reference text: 1 Ross, R. Atherosclerosis. An inflammatory disease. N Engl J Med 1999; 340: 115–128.
    2 Devaraj, S, Jialal, I. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein and atherosclerosis. Int J Clin Lab Res 1996; 26: 178–184.
    3 Gielen, S, Erbs, S, Linke, A, Mobius-Winkler, S, Schueler, G, Hambrecht, R. Home-based versus hospital-based exercise programs in patients with coronary artery disease: effects on coronary vasomotion. Am Heart J 2003; 145: e3–e6.
    4 Gokce, N, Vita, J, Bader, D, et al. Effect of exercise on upper and lower extremity endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002; 90: 124–127.
    5 Hambrecht, R, Fiehn, E, Weigl, C, et al. Regular physical exercise corrects endothelial dysfunction and improves exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure. Circulation
    1998; 98: 2709–2715.
    6 Hambrecht, R, Wolf, A, Gielen, S, et al. Effect of exercise on coronary endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 454–460.
    7 Higashi, Y, Sasaki, S, Kurisu, S, et al. Regular aerobic exercise augments endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in normotensive as well as hypertensive subjects. Role
    of endothelium-derived nitric oxide. Circulation 1999; 100: 1194–1202.
    8 Katz, SD, Yuen, J, Bijou, R, Lejemtel, TH. Training improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in resistance vessels of patients with heart failure. J Appl Physiol 1997;
    82: 1488–1492.
    9 Lavrencic, A, Salobir, BG, Keber, I. Physical training improves flow-mediated dilation in patients with the polymetabolic syndrome. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000; 20: 551–555.
    10 Linke, A, Schoene, N, Gielen, S, et al. Endothelial dysfunction in patients with chronic heart failure: systemic effects of lower-limb exercise training. N Engl J Med 2001; 315: 1046–1051.
    11 Maiorana, A, O’Driscoll, G, Dembo, L, Goodman, C, Taylor, R, Green, D. Exercise training, vascular function, and functional capacity in middle-aged subjects. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001; 33: 2022–2028.
    12 Green, DJ, Maiorana, A, O’Driscoll, G, Taylor, R. Effect of exercise training on endothelium-derived nitric oxide function in humans. J Physiol 2004; 561: 1–25.
    13 Maiorana, A, O’Driscoll, G, Taylor, R, Green, D. Exercise and the nitric oxide vasodilator system. Sports Med 2003; 33: 1013–1035.
    14 Niebauer, J, Cooke, JP. Cardiovascular effects of exercise:
    role of endothelial shear stress. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996; 28: 1652–1660.
    15 Nishida, K, Harrison, DG, Navas, JP, et al. Molecular cloning and characterization of the constitutive bovine aortic endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase. J Clin Invest 1992; 90: 2092–2096.
    16 Uematsu, M, Ohara, Y, Navas, JP, et al. Regulation of endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression by shear stress. Am J Physiol 1995; 269: C1371–C1378.
    17 Harrison, DG, Widder, J, Grumbach, I, Chen, W, Webber, M, Searles, C. Endothelial mechanotransduction, nitric oxide and vascular inflammation. J Intern Med 2006; 259: 351–363.
    18 Saunders, NR, Pyke, KE, Tschakovsky, ME. Dynamic response characteristics of local muscle blood flow regulatory mechanisms in human forearm exercise. J Appl Physiol 2004; 98: 1286–1296.
    19 Saunders, NR, Tschakovsky, ME. Evidence for a rapid vasodilatory contribution to immediate hyperemia in restto- mild and mild-to-moderate forearm exercise transitions in humans. J Appl Physiol 2004; 97: 1143–1151.
    20 Shoemaker, JK, MacDonald, MJ, Hughson, RL. Time course of brachial artery diameter responses to rhythmic handgrip exercise in humans. Cardiovasc Res 1997; 35: 125–131.
    21 Tschakovsky, ME, Rogers, AM, Pyke, KE, et al. Immediate exercise hyperemia in humans is contraction intensity dependent: evidence for a rapid vasodilation. J Appl Physiol 2004; 96: 639–644.
    22 Van Beekvelt, MCP, Shoemaker, JK, Tschakovsky, ME, Hopman, MTE, Hughson, RL. Blood flow and muscle oxygen uptake at the onset and end of moderate and heavy dynamic forearm exercise. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2001; 280: R1741–R1747.
    23 Green, DJ, Bilsborough, W, Naylor, LH, et al. Comparison of forearm blood flow responses to incremental handgrip and cycle ergometer exercise: relative contribution of nitric oxide. J Physiol 2005; 562: 617–628.
    24 Tanaka, H, Shimizu, S, Ohmori, F, et al. Increases in blood flow and shear stress to nonworking limbs during incremental exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2006; 38: 81–85.
    25 Pyke, KE, Tschakovsky, ME. The relationship between shear stress and flow-mediated dilatation: implications for the assessment of endothelial function. J Physiol 2005; 568: 357–369.
    26 DeSouza, CA, Shaprio, LF, Clevenger, CM, et al. Regular aerobic exercise prevents and restores age-related declines in endothelium-dependent vasodilation in healthy men. Circulation
    2000; 102: 1351–1357.
    27 American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005.
    28 Borg, GA. Perceived exertion: a note on ‘history’ and methods. Med Sci Sports 1973; 5: 90–93.
    29 Harris, RA, Padilla, J, Rink, LD, Wallace, JP. Variability of flow-mediated dilation measurements with repetitive reactive hyperemia. Vasc Med 2006; 11: 1–6.
    30 Gnasso, A, Carallo, C, Irace, C, et al. Association between intima-media thickness and wall shear stress in common carotid arteries in healthy male subjects. Circulation 1996; 94: 3257–3262.
    31 Goto, C, Higashi, Y, Kimura, M, et al. Effect of different intensities of exercise on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in humans. Role of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide and oxidative stress. Circulation 2003; 108: 530–535.
    32 Niess, AM, Dickhuth, H, Northoff, H, Fehrenbach, E. Free radicals and oxidative stress in exerciseimmunological aspects. Exerc Immunol Rev 1999; 5: 22–56.
    33 Ji, LL. Antioxidants and oxidative stress in exercise. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1999; 222: 283–290.
    34 Sies, H. Oxidative stress: oxidants and antioxidants. Exp Physiol 1997; 82: 291–295.
    35 Matsuoka, H. Endothelial dysfunction associated with oxidative
    stress in human. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2001; 54: S65–S72.
    36 Betik, AC, Luckham, VB, Hughson, RL. Flow-mediated dilation in human brachial artery after different circulatory occlusion conditions. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2004; 286: H442–H448.
    37 Duffy, ST, Castle, SF, Harper, RW, Meredith, IT. Contribution of vasodilator prostanoids and nitric oxide to resting flow, metabolic vasodilation, and flow-mediated dilation in human coronary circulation. Circulation 1999; 100: 1951– 1957.
    38 Joannides, R, Haefeli, WE, Linder, L, et al. Nitric oxide is responsible for flow-mediated dilation of human peripheral conduit arteries in vivo. Circulation 1995; 91: 1314–1319.
    39 Pyke, KE, Dwyer, EM, Tschakovsky, ME. Impact of controlling shear rate on flow-mediated dilation responses in the brachial artery of humans. J Appl Physiol 2004; 97: 499–508.
    40 Yashiro, Y, Ohhashi, T. Flow- and agonist-mediated nitric oxide- and prostaglandin-dependent dilation in spinal arteries. Am J Physiol 1997; 273: H2217–H2223.


    • Doppler ultrasonography
    • endothelial function
    • exercise intensity


    Dive into the research topics of 'Characterization of the brachial artery shear stress following walking exercise'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this