The study examined and compared levels of aerial contamination in commercial beef and sheep plants at four sites, i.e. lairage, hide/fleece pulling, evisceration and chilling. Aerial contaminationwas determined by impaction and sedimentation onto Plate Count Agar to enumerate Total Viable Counts, MacConkey Agar to enumerate coliforms and Violate Red Bile Glucose Agar to enumerate Enterobacteriaceae. The levels of aerial contamination were similar at equivalent sites in beef and sheep plants, irrespective of the samplingmethod or the type of organisms recovered. Mean log counts recovered on each medium in the chillers were generally significantly lower (P
Bibliographical noteReference text: Anonymous, 2002. Red Meat Safety and Clean Livestock. Food Standards Agency,
London, UK, pp. 1-23.
Anonymous, 2004. Regulation (EC) No.853/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 laying down specific hygiene rules for food of animal origin. Official Journal of the European Union 226, 22-82.
Anonymous, 2005. Producing Clean Cattle: a Guide for Farmers. Food Assurance
Programme. Teagasc, Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland, pp. 1-6.
Burfoot, D., Whyte, R., Tinker, D., Howell, M., Hall, K., Holah, J., Smith, D., White, R., Baker, D., McIntosh, J., 2006. Importance of airborne contamination during dressing of beef and lamb carcasses. Journal of Food Protection 69, 2828-2836.
Byrne, B., Dunne, G., Lyng, J., Bolton, D.J., 2007. The development of a ‘clean sheep policy’ in compliance with the new Hygiene Regulation (EC) 853/2004 (Hygiene2). Food Microbiology 24, 301-304.
Clifton, I.J., Fletcher, L.A., Beggs, C.B., Denton, M., Peckham, D.G., 2008. A laminar flow
model of aerosol survival of epidemic and non-epidemic strains of Pseudomonas
aeruginosa isolated from people with cystic fibrosis. BMC Microbiology 8, 105.
Consenza-Sutton, G.H., 2004. Enumeration of Total Airborne Bacteria, yeast and mould contaminants and identification of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria spp., Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in a Beef and Pork Slaughter Facility. University of Florida, PhD.
Fournaud, J., Bertaud, M., 1981. Air contamination in slaughter houses and bacteriological quality of the bovine carcasses. In: 27th Europäischer Fleischforscher- Kongress Wien, Austria, pp. 181-191.
Friberg, B., Friberg, S., Burman, L.G., 1999. Correlation between surface and air counts of particles carrying aerobic bacteria in operating rooms with turbulent ventilation: an experimental study. Journal of Hospital Infection 42, 61-68.
Hadley, P.J., Holder, J.S., Hinton, M.H., 1997. Effects of fleece soiling and skinning method on the microbiology of sheep carcases. Veterinary Record 140, 570-574.
Heidelberg, J.F., Shahamat, M., Levin, M., Rahman, I., Stelma, G., Grim, C., Colwell, R.R.,1997. Effect of aerosolization on culturability and viability of gram- negative bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63, 3585-3588.
Jericho, K.W., Ho, J., Kozub, G.C., 2000. Aerobiology of a high-line speed cattle abattoir. Journal of Food Protection 63, 1523-1528.
Lues, J.F.R., Threon, M.M., Venter, P., Rasephei, M.H.R., 2006. Microbial composition
in bioaerosols of a high throughput chicken-slaughtering facility. Poultry Science 86, 142-149.
McEvoy, J.M., Doherty, A.M., Finnerty, M., Sheridan, J.J., McGuire, L., Blair, I.S., McDowell, D.A., Harrington, D., 2000. The relationship between hide cleanliness and bacterial numbers on beef carcasses at a commercial abattoir. Letters in Applied Microbiology 30, 390-395.
Pearce, R.A., Sheridan, J.J., Bolton, D.J., 2006. Distribution of airborne microorganisms in commercial pork slaughter processes. International Journal of Food Microbiology 107, 186-191.
Prendergast, D.M., Daly, D.J., Sheridan, J.J., McDowell, D.A., Blair, I.S., 2004. The effect of abattoir design on aerial contamination levels and the relationship between aerial and carcass contamination levels in two Irish beef abattoirs. Food Microbiology 21, 589-596.
Rahkio, T.M., Korkeala, H.J., 1997. Air borne bacteria and carcass contamination in slaughter houses. Journal of Food Protection 60, 38-42.
Shale, K., Lues, J.F.R., 2007. The aetiology of bioaerosols in food environments. Food
Reviews International 23, 73e90.
Sirami, J., 1989. La contamination microbiologique de l’air dans le hall d’abbatage:
Factures de variation et influence sur la carcasse. Viande Production Carne 10, 109-116.
Stein, C., McEvoy, J.M., 2002. Development of a Method to Determine Bacterial Counts from Aerial Surfaces in a Beef Abattoir. Project Report, The National Food Centre, Teagasc, Dublin, pp. 1-42.
Stewart, S.L., Grinshpun, S.A., Willeke, K., Terzieva, S., Ulevicius, V., Donnelly, J., 1995. Effect of impact stress on microbial recovery on an agar surface. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 61, 1232-1239.
Tang, J.W., 2009. The effect of environmental parameters on the survival of airborne infectious agents. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 6, S737-S746.
Whyte, P., Collins, J.D., McGill, K., Monahan, C., O’Mahony, H., 2001. Distribution and
prevalence of airborne microorganisms in three commercial poultry processing plants. Journal of Food Protection 64, 388-391.
Worfel, R.C., Sofos, J.N., Smith, G.C., Schmidt, G.R., 1996. Airborne bacterial contamination in beef slaughtering-dressing plants with different layouts. Dairy, Food and Environmental Sanitation 16, 440-443.
- Aerial contamination