AbstractObjectiveTo develop and apply a theory-based scale for measuring motivation to eat healthily and exercise during pregnancy.SettingOutpatient maternity clinics and antenatal classes in a local hospital covering both rural and urban populations.ParticipantsOne hundred and ninety six (196) primigravida women.MethodsThe MEEP scale was developed through transcription and modification of a previous motivational measurement scale, based on expectancy value (E-V) theory. Subsequently, a 64-item scale was constructed and validated. Initial piloting (n=20) and application of the scale was undertaken in a convenience sample of 212 primigravida women with a valid sample of 196 for analysis. Principle components analysis (PCA) was performed to refine the scale and explore any underlying factors related to women’s motivation.ResultsConstruct validity was demonstrated in that the three components emerging from the dataset were consistent with the underlying concepts of expectancy value theory. Cronbach alpha values of >.7 for all the subscales demonstrated substantial internal consistency for the three components for both diet and physical activity variables.ConclusionsThis study provides support for the reliability and validity of the MEEP scale on initial application. Further development and testing of this scale is required to confirm the factor structure and determine whether the MEEP tool is valid and reliable when applied in different settings.Keywords: Pregnancy; Diet; Exercise; Motivation; Obesity; Motivational Measurement scale.
|Publication status||Published - 2 Sep 2016|
Bibliographical noteCompliant in UIR; evidence uploaded to 'Other files'
Reference text: 1. Moran LJ, Sui Z, Cramp C, Dodd JM (2013) A decrease in diet quality occurs during pregnancy in overweight and obese women which is maintained post-partum. International journal of obesity 37(5): 704-711.
2. Evenson KR, Bradley CB (2010) Beliefs about exercise and physical activity among pregnant women. Patient education and counseling 79(1): 124-129.
3. Fraser A, Tilling K, Macdonald-Wallis C, Hughes R, Sattar N, et al. (2011) Associations of gestational weight gain with maternal body mass index, waist circumference, and blood pressure measured 16 y after pregnancy: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 93(6): 1285-1292.
4. Parsons TJ, Power C, Manor O (2001) Fetal and early life growth and body mass index from birth to early adulthood in 1958 British cohort: longitudinal study. BMJ (Clinical research ed.) 323(7325): 1331-1335.
5. Halloran DR, Cheng YW, Wall TC, Macones GA, Caughey AB (2012) Effect of maternal weight on postterm delivery. Journal of Perinatology 32(2):85-90.
6. Nehring I, Schmoll S, Beyerlein A, Hauner H, von Kries R (2011) Gestational weight gain and long-term postpartum weight retention: a meta-analysis. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 94(5): 1225-1231.
7. Olson CM, Strawderman MS (2003) Modifiable behavioral factors in a biopsychosocial model predict inadequate and excessive gestational weight gain. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 103(1): 48-54.
8. Ruchat S, Davenport MH, Giroux I, Hillier M, Batada, A, et al. (2012) Nutrition and exercise reduce excessive weight gain in normal-weight pregnant women. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 44(8): 1419-1426.
9. Thangaratinam S, Rogozinska E, Jolly K, Glinkowski, S, Roseboom T, et al. (2012) Effects of interventions in pregnancy on maternal weight and obstetric outcomes: meta-analysis of randomised evidence. BMJ (Clinical research ed.) 344: e2088.
10. (2010) Weight management before, during and after pregnancy: guidance. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE).
11. Feather NT (1982) Expectations and actions: Expectancy-value models in psychology. Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc Incorporated.
12. Hausenblas H, Downs DS, Giacobbi P, Tuccitto D, Cook B (2008) A multilevel examination of exercise intention and behavior during pregnancy. Social science & medicine 66(12): 2555-2561.
13. Downs DS, Hausenblas HA (2003) Exercising for two: examining pregnant women’s second trimester exercise intention and behavior using the framework of the theory of planned behavior. Women’s Health Issues 13(6): 222-228.
14. Bogers RP, Brug J, van Assema P, Dagnelie PC (2004) Explaining fruit and vegetable consumption: the theory of planned behaviour and misconception of personal intake levels. Appetite 42(2): 157-166.
15. Keller JM (1987) The systematic process of motivational design. Performance Instruction, 26(9‐10): 1-8.
16. Brown MJ (2013) Successful Antenatal Instruction for Improving Diet, Physical Activity and Weight Management for First-Time Mothers during Pregnancy: Application of a Motivational Model of Instructional Design, Ulster University.
17. Stockdale J, Sinclair M, Kernohan G, Dunwoody L, Cunningham B, et al. (2008) Assessing the impact of midwives’ instruction: the breastfeeding motivational instructional measurement scale. Evidence Based Midwifery 6(1): 27-34.
18. Jacobs JE, Eccles JS (2000) Parents, task values, and real-life achievement-related choices. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: The search for optimal motivation and performance 405-439.
19. Locke EA, Latham GP (1990) A theory of goal setting & task performance. Prentice-Hall, Inc.
20. Bandura A (1977) Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological review, 84(2): 191-215.
21. Stockdale J, Sinclair M, Kernohan G, McCrum-Gardner E, Keller J (2013) Sensitivity of the Breastfeeding Motivational Measurement Scale: A Known Group Analysis of First Time Mothers. Plos One 8(12): e82976.
22. Rhodes RE, Matheson DH, MARK R (2010) Evaluation of social cognitive scaling response options in the physical activity domain. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science 14(3): 137-150.
23. Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS (2007) Using Multivariate Statistics 5th ed. USA: Pearson Education.
24. Stevens JP (2002) Applied Multivariate Statistics for the Social Sciences 4th ed. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
25. Comrey AL, Lee HB (2013) A first course in factor analysis. Psychology Press.
26. (2004) BMI classification. Global database on body mass index. WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO).
27. Kaiser HF (1974) An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika 39(1): 31-36.
28. Bartlet M (1954) A note on multiplying factors for various chi-squared approximations. Á. JR Stat.Soc. 16: 296-298.
29. Guadagnoli E, Velicer WF (1988) Relation to sample size to the stability of component patterns. Psychological bulletin 103 (2): 265.
30. Krans EE, Gearhart, JG, Dubbert PM, Klar PM, Miller AL, et al. (2005) Pregnant women’s beliefs and influences regarding exercise during pregnancy. Journal of the Mississippi State Medical Association, 46(3): 67-73.
31. Furness PJ, Mcseveny K, Arden MA, Garland C, Dearden, AM, et al. (2011) Maternal obesity support services: a qualitative study of the perspectives of women and midwives. BMC pregnancy and childbirth 11: 69.
32. Clissold TL, Hopkins WG, Seddon RJ (1991) Lifestyle behaviours during pregnancy. The New Zealand medical journal, 104(908): 111-112.
33. Phelan S (2010) Pregnancy: a “teachable moment” for weight control and obesity prevention. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 202(2): 135.
34. Chang MW, Nitzke S, Guilford E, Adair CH, Hazard DL (2008) Motivators and barriers to healthful eating and physical activity among low-income overweight and obese mothers. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 108(6): 1023-1028.
35. Stockdale DJ, Sinclair M, Kernohan W, Keller J (2011) Understanding motivational theory and the psychology of breastfeeding. 92-106.
36. Kok G, Den boer, D, DE Vries, H, Gerards F, Hospers H, et al. (1992) Self-efficacy and attribution theory in health education.
37. Self-efficacy: Thought control of action. Washington DC: Hemisphere Publishing Corporation.
38. Weiner B (1985) An attributional theory of achievement motivation and emotion. Psychological review 92(4): 548-573.
39. Leganger A, Kraft P, RØysamb E (2000) Perceived self-efficacy in health behaviour research: Conceptualisation, measurement and correlates. Psychology and Health 15(1): 51-69.
BAOJ Psychology, an open access journal Volume 1; Issue 2; 006
Page 8 of 8
Citation: Brown MJ, Sinclair MK, Hill AJ, Liddle SD and Stockdale DJ (2016) Development and Application of the Motivation to Eat Healthy and Exercise During Pregnancy (Meep Scale). BAOJ Psychology 1: 006.
40. Richman RM, Loughnan, GT, Droulers AM, Steinbeck KS, Caterson ID (2001) Self-efficacy in relation to eating behaviour among obese and non-obese women. International journal of obesity and related metabolic disorders : journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity 25(6): 907-913.
41. Warziski MT, Sereika SM, Styn MA, Music E, Burke LE (2008) Changes in self-efficacy and dietary adherence: the impact on weight loss in the PREFER study. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 31(1): 81-92.
42. Brown MJ, Sinclair M, Liddle D, Hill AJ, Madden E, et al. (2012) A systematic review investigating healthy lifestyle interventions incorporating goal setting strategies for preventing excess gestational weight gain. PloS one 7(7): e39503.
43. Hinton PS, Olson CM (2001) Postpartum Exercise and Food Intake: The Importance of Behavior-Specific Self-efficacy. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 101 (12): 1430-1437.
- motivation and exercise