The emergence of antibiotic resistance among marine bacteria has both a direct and an indirect impact on human and animal health. An important part of the dispersal and evolution of antibiotic resistant microorganisms depends on and occurs in the water environments. In marine water, bacteria from different origins (human, animal and environmental) are able to mix and resistance consequently evolves as a result of unwanted yet spontaneous exchange and shuffling of genes, genetic platforms and genetic vectors. At the same time antibiotics, disinfectants, pesticides and heavy metals are released in marine environment and may ultimately exert selection pressures, as well as ecological damage in water communities, eventually resulting in increased antibiotic resistance. Preventative and management methods aimed at reducing resistant bacterial load in wastewaters, and the sheer amounts of antimicrobial agents originating, in most cases from hospitals and farms, include optimization of disinfection procedures and management of wastewater and manure. A policy for preventing mixing of bacteria originating from human and animal sources with environmental organisms seems advisable. This Chapter focuses on mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, research on antibiotic resistance in marine bacteria and routs of transmission of marine antibiotic resistant pathogens to human.
|Title of host publication||Currnet Trends In Antibiotic Resistance In Infectious Diseases|
|Publisher||IK International Publishing House|
|Publication status||Published - Jun 2009|