The purpose of this study was to investigate the components necessary for the development of an effective applied sport psychology consulting relationship between a sport psychology consultant (SPC) and presented. Following purposeful sampling methods, members of two SPC-Coach consulting relationships (2 SPCs and 2 elite coaches) participated in individual interviews to discuss their perceptions of effective consulting relationships. Inductive \content analysis was conducted to search for common themes both within and across the two case studies (Weber, 1990). Three a coach. To address this purpose, two SPC-Coach consulting relationship case studies will be categories emerged with shared similarities between both case study relationships as important to the development of effective consulting relationships between SPCs and coaches; (a) SPC knowledge; (b) trust; and (c) friendship. In addition, two categories individual to each of the case study consulting relationships emerged; (d) SPC fitting in with team culture; and (e) flexibility.
|Journal||The Sport Psychologist|
|Publication status||Published - Dec 2013|
Bibliographical noteReference text: References
Andersen, M.B. (2000). Beginnings: Intakes and the initiation
of relationships. In M.B. Andersen (Ed.), Doing Sport
Psychology (pp. 3–16). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Andersen, M.B. (2004). Transference and countertransference.
In G.S. Kolt & M.B. Andersen (Eds.), Psychology in the
physical and manual therapies (pp. 71–80). Edinburgh,
Scotland: Churchill Livingstone.
Anderson, A., Miles, A., Robinson, P., & Mahoney, C. (2004).
Evaluating the athlete’s perception of the sport psychologist’s
effectiveness: What should we be assessing? Psychology
of Sport and Exercise, 5, 255–277. doi:10.1016/
Andersen, M.B., & Williams-Rice, B.T. (1996). Supervision
in the education and training of sport psychology service
providers. The Sport Psychologist, 10, 278–290.
Bowes, I., & Jones, R.L. (2006). Working at the edge of chaos:
Understanding coaching as a complex, interpersonal
system. The Sport Psychologist, 20, 235–245.
Fifer, A., Henschen, K.P., Gould, D., & Ravizza, K. (2008).
What works when working with athletes. The Sport Psychologist,
Fletcher, D., & Scott, M. (2010). Psychological sress in sports
coaches: A review of concepts, research and practice.
Journal of Sports Sciences, 28, 127–137. PubMed
Gardner, F. (1995). The coach and the team psychologist: An
integrated organisational model. In S.M. Murphy (Ed.),
Sport psychology interventions (pp. 147–175). Champaign:
Gardner, F.L. (2001). Applied sport psychology in professional
sports: The team psychologist. Professional Psychology,
Research and Practice, 32(1), 34–39. doi:10.1037/0735-
Gelso, C.J., & Hays, J.A. (1998). The psychotherapy relationship:
Theory, research, and practice. London: John Wiley
Gould, D., Greenleaf, C., Guinan, D., & Chung, Y. (2002). A
survey of U.S. Olympic coaches: Variables perceived to
have influenced athlete performances and coach effectiveness.
The Sport Psychologist, 16, 229–250.
Gould, D., Hodge, K., Peterson, K., & Petlichkoff, L. (1987).
Psychological foundations of coaching: Similarities and
differences among intercollegiate wrestling coaches. The
Sport Psychologist, 1, 293–308.
Giges, B., Petitpas, A.J., & Vernacchia, R.A. (2004). Helping
coaches met their own needs: Challenges for the sport psychology
consultant. The Sport Psychologist, 18, 430–444.
Halliwell, W. (1990). Providing sport psychology consulting
services in professional hockey. The Sport Psychologist,
Hays, K.F. (2006). Being fit: The ethics of practice diversification
in performance psychology. Professional Psychology,
Research and Practice, 37, 223–232. doi:10.1037/0735-
Horn, T.S. (2002). Coaching effectiveness in the sport domain.
In T.S. Horn (Ed.), Advances in sport psychology (pp.
309–354). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Horvath, A.O. (2001). The alliance. Psychotherapy (Chicago,
Ill.), 38, 365–372. doi:10.1037/0033-318.104.22.1685
Horvath, A.O. (2006). The alliance in context: Accomplishments,
challenges, and future directions. Psychotherapy
(Chicago, Ill.), 43, 258–263. PubMed doi:10.1037/0033-
Jowett, S., & Poczwardowski, A. (2007). Understanding the
coach-athlete relationship. In S. Jowett & D. Lavallee
(Eds.), Social psychology in sport (pp. 3–14). Champaign,
IL: Human Kinetics.
Lubker, J.R., Visek, A.J., Geer, J.R., & Watson, J.C. (2008).
Characteristics of an effective sport psychology consultant:
Perspectives from athletes and consultants. Journal
of Sport Behavior, 31, 147–165.
McCann, S.C. (2000). Doing sport psychology in the really big
show. In M.B. Andersen (Ed.), Doing sport psychology (pp.
209–277). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Neff, F. (1990). Delivering sport psychology services to a
professional sport organization. The Sport Psychologist,
Norcross, J.C. (2002). Psychotherapy relationships that work:
Therapist contributions and responsiveness to patients.
Oxford: Oxford University Press Inc.
Orlick, T., & Partington, J. (1987). The sport psychology consultant:
Analysis of critical components as viewed by Canadian
Olympic athletes. The Sport Psychologist, 1, 4–17.
Paquette, K.J., & Sullivan, P. (2012). Canadian curling coaches’
use of psychological skills training. The Sport Psychologist,
Partington, J., & Orlick, T. (1987). The sport psychology consultant:
Olympic coaches’ view. The Sport Psychologist,
Petitpas, A.J., Giges, B., & Danish, S.J. (1999). The sport
psychologist-athlete relationship: Implications for training.
The Sport Psychologist, 13, 344–357.
Poczwardowski, A., & Sherman, C.P. (2011). Revisions to
the sport psychology service delivery (SPSD) heuristic:
Explorations with experienced consultants. The Sport
Psychologist, 25, 511–531.
Poczwardowski, A., Sherman, C.P., & Henschen, K.P. (1998).
A sport psychology service delivery heuristic: Building on
theory and practice. The Sport Psychologist, 12, 191–207.
Ravizza, K. (1990). SportPsych consultation issues in professional
baseball. The Sport Psychologist, 4, 330–340.
Ravizza, K. (1988). Gaining entry with athletic personnel
for season long consulting. The Sport Psychologist, 2,
Price, F.L., & Andersen, M.B. (2000). Into the maelstrom: A
five year relationship from college ball to NFL. In M.B.
Andersen (Ed.), Doing sport psychology (pp. 193–206).
Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Robson, C. (2002). Real world research: A resource for social
scientists and practitioner-researchers (2nd ed.). Oxford:
Rotella, B., Boyce, B.A., Allyson, B., & Savis, J.C. (1998).
Case studies in sport psychology. London: Jones & Barlett
Sexton, T.L., & Whiston, S.C. (1994). The status of the
counseling relationship: An empirical review, theoretical
324 Sharp and Hodge
implications, and research directions. The Counseling
Psychologist, 22, 6–78. doi:10.1177/0011000094221002
SESNZ. (2012). Code of Ethics. Retrieved May 10, 2012, from
Sharp, L., & Hodge, K. (2011). Sport psychology consulting
effectiveness: The sport psychology consultant’s perspective.
Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 23, 360–376.
Smith, R.E. (1989). Applied sport psychology in an age of
accountability. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 1,
Sparkes, A.C. (1998). Validity in qualitative inquiry and the
problem of criteria: Implications for sport psychology.
The Sport Psychologist, 12, 363–386.
Stake, R.E. (2000). Case studies. In N.K. Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln
(Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (2nd ed.,
pp. 435–449). Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.
Tod, D., & Andersen, M.B. (2005). Success in sport psych:
Effective sport psychologists. In S. Murphy (Ed.), The
sport psych handbook (pp. 305–335). Auckland: Human
Thelwell, R.C., Weston, N.J.V., Greenlees, I.A., & Hutchings,
N.V. (2008). A qualitative exploration of psychologicalskills
use in coaches. The Sport Psychologist, 22, 38–53.
Van Raalte, J.L., & Andersen, M.B. (2000). Supervision I:
From models to doing. In M.B. Andersen (Ed.), Doing
sport psychology (pp. 153–165). Champaign, IL: Human
Vealey, R.S. (1988). Future directions in psychological skills
training. The Sport Psychologist, 2, 318–336.
Vealey, R.S. (1994). Current status and prominent issues
in sport psychology interventions. Medicine and Science
in Sports and Exercise, 26, 495–502. PubMed
Vernacchia, R.A., McGuire, R.T., & Cook, D.L. (1996). What
coaches want from sport psychology. Journal of Applied
Sport Psychology, 10(Suppl.), 129–130.
Weber, R. (1990). Basic content analyses. London: Sage.
Weinberg, R.S., & Williams, J.M. (2001). Integrating and implementing
a psychological skills training program. In J.M.
Williams (Ed.), Applied sport psychology: personal growth
to peak performance (4th ed., pp. 347–377). Mountain
View, Calif.: Mayfield Pub. Co.
Winstone, W., & Gervis, M. (2006). Countertransference and
the self-aware sport psychologist: Attitudes and patterns of
professional practice. The Sport Psychologist, 20, 495–511.
Yin, R.K. (2003). Case study research: Design and methods
(3rd ed.). London: Sage Publications.
Younggren, J.N., & Gottlieb, M.C. (2004). Managing risk
when contemplating multiple relationships. Professional
Psychology: Research and Practice, 35, 255–260.
- consulting relationships