Twenty 5-mo-old Holstein cattle (10 steers and 10 heifers) were selected from a dairy herd for a 28 d study of enteric methane emissions and energy utilization. The cattle were offered a completely mixed diet with grass silage and concentrates (0.45 and 0.55, DM basis, respectively). They were housed as a single group in cubicle accommodation for the first 20 d, transferred to metabolism units for 3 d, and subsequently housed in indirect open-circuit respiration calorimeter chambers for next 5 d with measurements of feed intake, feces and urine outputs, and gaseous exchange. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) between the 2 groups in terms of animal performance (feed intake, BW, or BW gain), energy metabolism (energy intake, energy outputs, or energy use efficiency), or methane emission rates (total methane emissions expressed on feed intake or energy intake basis). Therefore, the data from the 2 groups were pooled to develop a range of relationships between inputs and outputs. The regression of energy balance or heat production against ME intake (r2 = 0.85; P <0.001) indicated a NEm of 0.57MJ/kg BW0.75, which is greater than reported for adult dairy cattle. The methane energy output was found to be 0.068 of GE intake when the intercept was omitted from the linear equation (r2 = 0.73; P <0.001), which is greater than the commonly accepted value (0.065) for adult cattle used for development of methane emission inventories for dairy and beef production systems. These data can add useful information, as there is little information available on measurements of maintenance energy requirement or methane emissions in young stock (6 mo old) of the current high-yielding dairy cattle. The use of these data can potentially improve the accuracy of prediction of energy requirement and methane emissions for dairy and beef production systems in these dietary conditions.
Bibliographical noteReference text: Agnew, R. E., and T. Yan. 2000. Impact of recent research on energy feeding systems for dairy cattle. Livest. Prod. Sci. 66:197–215.
Agricultural Research Council (ARC). 1980. The nutrient requirements of ruminant livestock, technical review. CAB Farnham Royal, Slough, UK.
Aljaloud, A. A., T. Yan, and A. Abdukader. 2011. Development of national methane emission inventory for domestic livestock in Saudi Arabia. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 166–167:619–627.
Baldwin, B. R., N. E. Forsberg, and C. Y. Hu. 1985. Potential for altering partition in the lactating cow. J. Dairy Sci. 68:3394–3402.
Brouwer, E. 1965. Report of sub-committee on constants and factors. Page 411 in Energy metabolism. EAAP Publ. No. 11. European Association for Animal Production (EAAP), Troon, UK.
Cushnahan, A., and F. J. Gordon. 1995. The effects of grass preservation on intake, apparent digestibility and rumen degradation characteristics. Anim. Sci. 60:429–438.
Ellis, J. L., E. Kebreab, N. E. Odongo, B. W. McBride, E. K. Okine and J. France. 2007. Prediction of methane emission from dairy and beef cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 90:3456–3467.
Ferris, C. P., F. J. Gordon, D. C. Patterson, M. G. Porter, and T. Yan. 1999. The effect of genetic merit and concentrate proportion in the diet on nutrient utilisation by lactating dairy cows. J. Agric.
Sci., Cambridge. 132:483–490.
Flatt, W. P., P. W. Moe, A. W. Munson, and T. Cooper. 1969. Energy utilisation by high producing dairy cows. 2. Summary of energy balance experiments with lactating Holstein cows. In: Proc. 4th
Symp. Energy Metabolism Farm Animals, Warsaw, Poland. p. 235–251
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010. Greenhouse gas emissions from the dairy sector: A life cycle assessment. http://www.fao.org/docrep/012/k7930e/
k7930e00.pdf. (Accessed April 20, 2010.)
Gordon, F. J., D. C. Patterson, T. Yan, M. G. Porter, C. S. Mayne, and E. F. Unsworth. 1995. The influence of genetic index for milk production on the response to complete diet feeding and the utilization of energy and nitrogen. Anim. Sci. 61:199–210.
Institut Nationale de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA). 1989. Ruminant nutrition. Recommended allowances and feed tables. R. Jarrige, editor. INRA, Paris, France.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2006. 2006 Guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories. Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES), Hayama, Kanagawa, Japan. http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/pdf/4_
Volume4/V4_10Ch10_Livestock.pdf. (Accessed 20 January 2008.)
Johnson, D. E., K. A. Johnson, and R. L. Baldwin. 1990. Changes in liver and gastrointestinal tract energy demands in response to physiological work load in ruminants. J. Nutr. 120:649–655.
Johnson, K. A., and D. E. Johnson. 1995. Methane emissions from cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 73:2483–2492. Kebreab, E., J. France, R. E. Agnew, T. Yan, M. S. Dhanoa, J. Dijkstra, D. E. Beever, and C. K. Reynolds. 2003. Alternative to linear analysis of energy balance data from lactating dairy cows.
J. Dairy Sci. 86:2904–2913.
Kebreab, E., K. A. Johnson, S. L. Archibeque, D. Pape, and T. Wirth. 2008. Model for estimating enteric methane emissions from United States dairy and feedlot cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 86:2738–2748.
Kirkpatrick, D. E., R. W. J. Steen, and E. F. Unsworth. 1997. The effect of differing forage:concentrate ratio and restricting feed intake on the energy and nitrogen utilization by beef cattle. Livest. Prod. Sci. 51:151–164.
Mills, J. A. N., E. Kebreab, C. W. Yates, L. A. Crompton, S. B. Cammell, M. S. Dhanoa, R. E. Agnew, and J. France. 2003. Alternative approaches to predicting methane emissions from
dairy cows. J. Anim. Sci. 81:3141–3150.
Moe, P. W., and H. F. Tyrrell. 1979. Methane emission in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 62:1583–1586.
Mulvany, P. M. 1977. Dairy cows condition scoring. Paper No. 4468. Natl. Inst. Res. Dairying, Shinfi eld, Reading, UK.
NRC. 1988. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle, 6th rev. ed. Natl.Acad. Press, Washington, DC.
NRC. 1998. Nutrient requirements of swine, 10th rev. ed. Natl. Acad. Press, Washington, DC.
Oldham, J. D., and C. G. Emmans. 1990. Animal performance as the criterion for feed evaluation. In: J. Wiseman and D. J. A. Cole, editors, Feedstuff evaluation. 2nd ed. Butterworths, London. p. 73–90.
Ørskov, E. R., and M. Ryle. 1990. Energy nutrition in ruminants. Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd., London, UK. Porter, M. G. 1992. Comparison of sample preparation methods for the determination of the gross energy concentration of fresh silage. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 37:201–208.
Porter, M. G., and R. S. Murray. 2001. The volatility of components of grass silage on oven drying and the inter-relationship between dry matter content estimated by different analytical methods.
Grass Forage Sci. Technol. 37:201–208.
Steen, R. W. J. 1989. A comparison of soyabean, sunflower, and fish meals as protein supplements for yearling cattle offered grass silage based diets. Anim. Prod. 48:127–132.
Thistlethwaite, G, and J. MacCarthy. 2010. Emissions of the basket of 6 Kyoto GHGs according to Devolved Administration. NAEI reference number 45322/2008/CD6851/GT Issue 1.0,
07/09/2010. http://www.agrisearch.org/attachments/article/158/ Final%20report%20for%20AgriSearch%20(D-45–08)%20 Breed%20comparison.pdf. (Accessed August 2011.)
Yan, T., R. E. Agnew, F. J. Gordon, and M. G. Porter. 2000. Prediction of methane energy output in dairy and beef cattle offered grass silage-based diets. Livest. Prod. Sci. 64:253–263.
Yan, T., F. J. Gordon, R. E. Agnew, M. G. Porter, and D. C. Patterson. 1997a. The metabolisable energy requirement for maintenance and the effi ciency of utilization of metabolisable energy for
lactation by dairy cows offered grass silage based diets. Livest Prod. Sci. 51:141–150.
Yan, T., F. J. Gordon, C. P. Ferris, R. E. Agnew, M. G. Porter, and D. C. Patterson. 1997b. The fasting heat production and effect of lactation on energy utilization by dairy cows offered forage based diets. Livest. Prod. Sci. 52:177–186.
Yan, T., C. S. Mayne, F. G. Gordon, M. G. Porter, R. E. Agnew, D. C. Patterson, C. P. Ferris, and D. J. Kilpatrick. 2010. Mitigation of enteric methane emissions through improving effi ciency of
energy utilization and productivity in lactation dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 93:2630–2638.
Yan, T., M. G. Porter, and C. S. Mayne. 2009. Prediction of methane emission from beef cattle using data measured in indirect open circuit respiration calorimeters. Animal 3:1455–1462.
- energy metabolism
- enteric methane emission
- Holstein young stock