Evaluating the Success of Phosphorus Management from Field to Watershed

A.N. Sharpley, P.J.A. Kleinman, P. Jordan, L. Bergstrom, A.L. Allen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

107 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Studies have demonstrated some P loss reduction followingimplementation of remedial strategies at fi eld scales. However,there has been little coordinated evaluation of best managementpractices (BMPs) on a watershed scale to show where, when, andwhich work most eff ectively. Th us, it is still diffi cult to answerwith a degree of certainty, critical questions such as, how longbefore we see a response and where would we expect to observethe greatest or least response? In cases where fi eld and watershedscales are monitored, it is not uncommon for trends in P lossto be disconnected. We review case studies demonstratingthat potential causes of the disconnect varies, from competingsources of P at watershed scales that are not refl ected in fi eldmonitoring to an abundance of sinks at watershed scales thatbuff er fi eld sources. To be successful, P-based mitigationstrategies need to occur iteratively, involve stakeholder drivenprograms, and address the inherent complexity of all P sourceswithin watersheds.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1981-1988
JournalJournal of Environmental Quality
Volume38
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009

Bibliographical note

Reference text: Arnscheidt, J., P. Jordan, S. Li, S. McCormick, R. McFaul, H.
McGrogan, M. Neal, and J.T. Sims. 2007. Defi ning the sources of low fl ow
phosphorus transfers in complex catchments. Sci. Total Environ. 382:1–13.

Aronsson, H., G. Torstensson, and L. Bergström. 2007. Leaching and crop
uptake of N, P and K from organic and conventional cropping systems
on a clay soil. Soil Use Manage. 23:71–81.

Baker, D.B., and R.P. Richards. 2002. Phosphorus budgets and riverine
phosphorus export in northwest Ohio. J. Environ. Qual. 31:96–108.

Boesch, D.F., R.B. Brinsfi eld, and R.E. Magnien. 2001. Chesapeake Bay
eutrophication: Scientifi c understanding, ecosystem restoration, and
challenges for agriculture. J. Environ. Qual. 30:303–320.

Chesapeake Bay Commission. 2007. Chesapeake Bay 2006: Health and
restoration assessment. A report to the citizens of the Bay region. CBP/
TRS 284/07. EPA 903R–07002. Available at http://www.chesapeakebay.
net/content/publications/cbp (verifi ed 2 Feb. 2009). Chesapeake Bay
Commission, Annapolis, MD.

Council of European Communities. 2000. Directive 2000/60/EC of the European
Parliament and of the Council establishing a framework for the Community
action in the fi eld of water policy. Offi cial Journal L 327, p. 0001–0073
(22/12/2000). Available at http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/water/
water-framework/index_en.html (verifi ed 28 Jan. 2009).

Datar, R.P., R.M. Shenkman, B.G. Cateni, R.L. Huhnke, and R.S. Lewis.
2004. Fermentation of biomass-generated producer gas to ethanol.
Biotechnol. Bioeng. 86:587–594.

Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Aff airs. 2002. Code of good
agricultural practice for the protection of water. Ministry of Agriculture,
Fisheries and Food, London, England.

Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Aff airs. 2003. Strategic review
of diff use water pollution from agriculture. Discussion Document. Dep.
for Environment, Food and Rural Aff airs, April 2003. Available at www.
defra.gov.uk (verifi ed 28 Jan. 2009).

Devlin, D., K. Dhuyvetter, K. McVay, T. Kastens, C. Rice, K. Janssen, and G.
Pierzynski. 2003. Water quality best management practices, eff ectiveness,
and cost for reducing contaminant losses from cropland. MF-2572.
Kansas State Univ. Agric. Exp. Stn. and Coop. Ext. Serv., Manhattan.

Dinnes, D.L. 2004. Assessments of practices to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus
nonpoint source pollution of Iowa’s surface waters. USDA, Agric. Res.
Serv., Natl. Soil Tilth Lab., Ames, IA.

Douglas, R.W., W. Menary, and P. Jordan. 2007. Phosphorus and sediment transfers
in a grassland river catchment. Nutr. Cycling Agroecosyst. 77:199–212.

Ebeling, A.M., L.G. Bundy, M.J. Powell, and T.W. Andraski. 2002. Dairy
diet phosphorus eff ects in phosphorus losses in runoff from land-applied
manure. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 66:284–291.

Elobeid, A., S. Tokgoz, D.J. Hayes, B.A. Babcock, and C.E. Hart. 2006. Th e
long-run impact of corn-based ethanol on the grain, oilseed and livestock
sectors: A preliminary assessment. CARD Briefi ng Paper 06-BP 49.
Center for Agric. and Rural Development, Ames, IA.

Gitau, M.W., W.J. Gburek, and A.R. Jarrett. 2005. A tool for estimating best
management practice eff ectiveness for phosphorus pollution control. J.
Soil Water Conserv. 60:1–10.

Friedman, S., R. Heimlich, B. Jackson, and E. McLellan. 2007. Farming for clean
water: Innovative solutions to reduce Chesapeake Bay farm runoff . A report by
the Center for Conservation Incentives, Environmental Defense, New York.
Available at http://www.edf.org/documents/7373_ChesapeakeBayReport_
FarmingForCleanWater.pdf (verifi ed 2 Feb. 2009).

Heathwaite, A.L., A.N. Sharpley, and W.J. Gburek. 2000. Integrating
phosphorus and nitrogen management at catchment scales. J. Environ.
Qual. 29:158–166.

Hilton, J., M. O’Hare, M.J. Bowes, and I. Jones. 2006. How green is my river? A
new paradigm of eutrophication in rivers. Sci. Total Environ. 365:66–83.

James, E.E. 2005. Factors infl uencing the adoption and non-adoption of
the conservation reserve enhancement program in the Cannonsville
Watershed, New York. M. Sc. Diss. thesis. Dep. of Agric. Economics and
Rural Sociology, Th e Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

Jarvie, H.P., C. Neal, and P.J.A. Withers. 2006. Sewage-effl uent phosphorus:
A greater risk to river eutrophication than agricultural phosphorus? Sci.
Total Environ. 360:246–253.

Johnes, P.J., R. Foy, D. Butterfi eld, and P.M. Haygarth. 2007. Landuse scenarios
for England and Wales: Evaluation of management options to support ‘good
ecological status’ in surface freshwaters. Soil Use Manage. 23:176–194.

Jokela, W.E., J.C. Clausen, D.W. Meals, and A.N. Sharpley. 2004. Eff ectiveness
of agricultural best management practices in reducing phosphorous
loading to Lake Champlain. p. 39–53. In T.O. Manley et al. (ed.) Lake
Champlain: Partnerships and research in the New Millennium. Kluwer
Academic Publ., Dordrecht, the Netherlands.

Jordan, N., G. Boody, W. Broussard, J.D. Glover, D. Keeney, B.H. McCown,
G. McIsaac, M. Muller, H. Murray, J. Neal, C. Pansing, R.E. Turner, K.
Warner, and D. Wyse. 2007a. Sustainable development of the agricultural
1988 Journal of Environmental Quality • Volume 38 • September–October 2009
bio-economy. Science (Washington, DC) 316:1570–1571.

Jordan, P., J. Arnscheidt, H. McGrogan, and S. McCormick. 2005a. Highresolution
phosphorus transfers at the catchment scale: Th e hidden
importance of non-storm transfers. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 9:685–691.

Jordan, P., J. Arnscheidt, H. McGrogan, and S. McCormick. 2007b.
Characterizing phosphorus transfers in rural catchments using a
continuous bank-side analyzer. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11:372–381.

Jordan, P., W. Menary, K. Daly, G. Kiely, G. Morgan, P. Byrne, and R.
Moles. 2005b. Patterns and processes of phosphorus transfer from Irish
grassland soils to rivers–Integration of laboratory and catchment studies.
J. Hydrol. 304:20–34.

Kleinman, P.J.A., A.L. Allen, B.A. Needelman, A.N. Sharpley, P.A. Vadas, L.S.
Saporito, G.J. Folmar, and R.B. Bryant. 2007. Dynamics of phosphorus
transfers from heavily manured coastal plain soils to drainage ditches. J.
Soil Water Conserv. 62:225–235.

Kronvang, B., M. Bechmann, H. Lundekvam, H. Behrendt, G.H. Rubæk,
O.F. Schoumans, N. Syversen, H.E. Andersen, and C.C. Hoff mann.
2005. Phosphorus losses from agricultural areas in river basins: Eff ects
and uncertainties of targeted mitigation measures. J. Environ. Qual.
34:2129–2144.

Kyllmar, K., C. Carlsson, A. Gustafson, B. Ulén, and H. Johnsson. 2006.
Nutrient discharge from small agricultural catchments in Sweden.
Characterisation and trends. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 115:15–26.

Lawrence, J.D. 2006. Expansion in the ethanol industry and its eff ect on the
livestock industry. (http://www.extension.iastate.edu/ag/LawrencePresent.
indd.pdf) (verifi ed 28 Jan. 2009). Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames.

McDowell, R.W., B.J.F. Biggs, A.N. Sharpley, and L. Nguyen. 2004.
Connecting phosphorus loss from agricultural landscapes to surface
water quality. Chem. Ecol. 20:1–40.

Maguire, R.O., D.A. Crouse, and S.C. Hodges. 2007. Diet modifi cation to
reduce phosphorus surpluses: A mass balance approach. J. Environ.
Qual. 36:1235–1240.

Meals, D.W. 1990. LaPlatte River watershed water quality monitoring and
analysis program: Comprehensive fi nal report. Program Rep. 12.
Vermont Water Resour. Res. Center, Univ. Vermont, Burlington.

Moosmann, L., B. Müller, R. Gächter, and A. Wüest. 2005. Trend-orientated
sampling strategy and estimation of soluble reactive phosphorus loads in
streams. Water Resour. Res. 41:W01020, doi:10.1029/2004WR003539.

National Academy of Sciences. 2007a. Mississippi River water quality and
the Clean Water Act: Progress, challenges, and opportunities. National
Academies Press, Washington, DC. 4 pages. Available at http://dels.nas.
edu/dels/rpt_briefs/biofuels_brief_fi nal.pdf (verifi ed Jan. 2009).

National Academy of Sciences. 2007b. Water implications of biofuels
production in the United States. Available at http://dels.nas.edu/dels/
rpt_briefs/miss_river_cwa_fi nal.pdf (verifi ed 28 Jan. 2009). National
Academy Press, Washington, DC.

Parrish, D.J., and J.H. Fike. 2005. Th e biology and agronomy of switchgrass
for biofuels. Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 24:423–459.

Pionke, H.B., W.J. Gburek, and A.N. Sharpley. 2000. Critical source area
controls on water quality in an agricultural watershed located in the
Chesapeake Basin. Ecol. Eng. 14:325–335.

Pionke, H.B., W.J. Gburek, A.N. Sharpley, and R.R. Schnabel. 1996. Flow
and nutrient export patterns for an agricultural hill-land watershed.
Water Resour. Res. 32:1795–1804.

Reinhardt, M., R. Gächter, B. Wehrli, and B. Müller. 2005. Phosphorus
retention in small constructed wetlands treating agricultural drainage
waters. J. Environ. Qual. 34:1251–1259.

Schoumans, O.F., and W.J. Chardon. 2003. Risk assessment methodologies
for predicting phosphorus losses. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 166:403–408.
Sharpley, A.N., and S. Rekolainen. 1997. Phosphorus in agriculture and its
environmental implications. p. 1–54. In H.Tunney et al. (ed.) Phosphorus
loss from soil to water. CAB International Press, Cambridge, England.

Sharpley, A.N., J.P. Schmidt, and L. Hergert. 2006. Nutrient management
practices. p. 149–193. In M. Schnepf and C. Cox (ed.) Environmental
benefi ts of conservation on cropland: Th e status of our knowledge. Soc.
of Soil and Water Conserv., Ankeny, IA.

Sharpley, A.N., and S.J. Smith. 1994. Wheat tillage and water quality in the
Southern Plains. Soil Tillage Res. 30:33–38.

Sharpley, A.N., S.J. Smith, J.A. Zollweg, and G.A. Coleman. 1996. Gully
treatment and water quality in the Southern Plains. J. Soil Water
Conserv. 51:512–517.

Shepard, R. 2005. Nutrient management planning: Is it the answer to better
management? J. Soil Water Conserv. 60:171–176.

Simpson, T.W., R. Korcak, and C. Musgrove. 2004. Innovation in agricultural
conservation for the Chesapeake Bay: Evaluating progress & addressing
future challenges. Available at http://www.chesapeakebay.net/pubs/
STACAgWhitepaper.pdf (verifi ed 28 Jan. 2009). Scientifi c and Technical
Advisory Committee of the Chesapeake Bay Program, Annapolis, MD.

Simpson, T.W., A.N. Sharpley, R.W. Howarth, H.W. Paerl, and K.R. Mankin.
2008. Th e new gold rush: Fueling ethanol production while protecting
water quality. J. Environ. Qual. 37:318–324.

Simpson, T.W., and S.E. Weammert. 2007. Th e Chesapeake Bay experience:
Learning about adaptive management the hard way. p. 155–165. In
M. Schnepf and C. Cox (ed.) Managing agricultural landscapes for
environmental quality: Strengthening the science base. Soil and Water
Conserv. Soc., Ankeny, IA.

Sims, J.T., and P.J.A. Kleinman. 2005. Managing agricultural phosphorus for
environmental protection. p. 1021–1068. In J.T. Sims and A.N. Sharpley
(ed.) Phosphorus: Agriculture and the environment. Agron. Monogr. 46.
ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, Madison, WI.

Singh, A., and A.K. Gosain. 2004. Resolving confl icts over transboundary
watercourses: An Indian perspective. Land Use Water Resour. Res. 4:2.1–2.5.

Smith, R.V., C. Jordan, and J.A. Annett. 2005. A phosphorus budget for
Northern Ireland. J. Hydrol. 304:193–202.

Smith, S.J., A.N. Sharpley, W.A. Berg, J.W. Naney, and G.A. Coleman. 1992.
Water quality characteristics associated with Southern Plains grasslands.
J. Environ. Qual. 21:595–601.

Taylor, A.W., and H.B. Pionke. 1999. Inputs of phosphorus to the Chesapeake
Bay Watershed. p. 7–21. In A.N. Sharpley (ed.) Agriculture and phosphorus
management: Th e Chesapeake Bay. Lewis Publ., Boca Raton, FL.

Ulén, B., and C. Jakobsson. 2005. Critical evaluations of measures to mitigate
phosphorus losses from agricultural land to surface waters in Sweden.
Sci. Total Environ. 344:37–50.

Upper Mississippi River Subbasin Hypoxia Nutrient Committee. 2006. Gulf
hypoxia and local water quality concerns workshop—A workshop assessing
tools to reduce agricultural nutrient losses to water resources in the corn
belt. In Workshop Proc., Iowa State Univ., Ames. 26–28 Sept. 2005.
American Soc. Of Agric. and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, MI.

USDA-NASS. 2007. Prospective plantings. March 30, 2007. Cr-Pr 2–4
(3–07). Available at http://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/usda/current/
ProsPlan/ProsPlan-03-31-2008.pdf (verifi ed 2 Feb. 2009).

USEPA. 2000a. Ecoregional nutrient criteria documents for lakes and
reservoirs. Available at http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/criteria/
nutrient/ecoregions/lakes/index.html (verifi ed 28 Jan. 2009). U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

USEPA. 2000b. Ecoregional nutrient criteria documents for rivers and
streams. Available at http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/criteria/nutrient/
ecoregions/rivers/index.html (verifi ed 28 Jan. 2009). U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

USEPA. 2003. Water quality trading policy. Available at http://www.
epa.gov/owow/watershed/trading.htm (verifi ed 28 Jan. 2009). U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

USEPA. 2006. Saving the Chesapeake Bay Watershed requires better coordination
of environmental and agricultural resources. EPA OIG Rep. 2007-P-00004.
Available at http://www.epa.gov/oig/reports/2007/20061120-
2007-P-00004.pdf (verifi ed 28 Jan. 2009). U.S. EPA, Offi ce of Inspector
General, U.S. Gov. Print. Offi ce, Washington, DC.

Watershed Agricultural Council. 2004. History of the watershed agricultural
council. Available at http://www.nycwatershed.org/index_wachistory.
html (verifi ed 28 Jan. 2009). Watershed Agric. Council, Walton, NY.

Wilcock, D.N. 1997. Rivers, drainage basins and soils. p. 85–98. In J.G.
Cruikshank (ed.) Soil and environment: Northern Ireland. Dep. of
Agric.–Northern Ireland and Queens Univ., Belfast, UK.

Wisner, R. 2007. Global economic impacts of ethanol industry growth.
Presentation at Tel Aviv University 15 May 2007. Available at http://www.
econ.iastate.edu/faculty/wisner/documents/telavivethanolpresentationwisner07.
pdf (verifi ed 28 Jan. 2009).

Withers, P.J.A., and E.I. Lord. 2002. Agricultural nutrient inputs to rivers
and groundwaters in the UK: Policy, environmental management and
research needs. Sci. Total Environ. 282:9–24.

Withers, P.J.A., S. Royle, M. Tucker, R. Watson, T. Scott, P. Silcock, and J.
Dwyer. 2003. Field development of grant aid proposals for the control
of diff use agricultural pollution. R&D Tech. Rep. P2–261/09/TR.
Environment Agency, Bristol, England.

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Evaluating the Success of Phosphorus Management from Field to Watershed'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this