In this chapter, the authors, a history teacher, researcher and teacher educator and an education researcher with a social psychology background, consider the role of history teaching in promoting community relations in Northern Ireland, with specific reference to funded projects. The Northern Ireland context for history teaching is briefly outlined followed by an overview of relevant social psychological theory, concepts and research. Educational responses to the conflict and post-conflict situations are explored and especially steps taken to develop the history curriculum to promote community relations. Specifically, the extent to which history teachers may be expected to deliver outcomes beyond their disciplinary remit is examined through two funded history education projects which explicitly aspire to contribute to improved relationships between young people from Unionist and Nationalist backgrounds. We conclude that given professional autonomy, identity and values, teachers of history in Northern Ireland are likely to differ in their implementation of such projects and to value disciplinary outcomes over project aims: as such outcomes in relation to promoting community relations are likely to be less consistent than discipline-related outcomes.
|Title of host publication||History Education and Conflict Transformation: Social Psychological Theories, History Teaching and Reconciliation|
|Editors||Charis Psaltis, Mario Carretero, Sabina Čehajić-Clancy|
|Place of Publication||Cham, Switzerland (ebook)|
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - Aug 2017|
Bibliographical noteReference text: Allport, G. W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Reading, Mass.: Addison- Wesley.
Barton, K. C. and McCully, A. W (2005). History, Identity and the School History Curriculum in Northern Ireland: An Empirical Study of Secondary Students’ Ideas and Perspectives, Journal of Curriculum Studies, 37 (1), 85-116.
Barton K.C. and McCully A.W. (2010). “You can form your own point of view”: Internally persuasive discourse in Northern Ireland Students’ encounters with History, Teachers’ College Record, 112 (1), 142-181
Barton K.C. and McCully A.W. (2012). Trying to “see things differently”: Northern Ireland Students’ Struggle to Understand Alternative Historical Perspectives. Theory and Research in Social Education, 40 (4), 371-471.
Bell J., Hansson U. & McCaffrey N. (2010). The Troubles aren’t History Yet, Belfast: Community Relations Council.
Billig, M. (1976). Social Psychology and Intergroup Relations. London: Academic Press.
Brown, R. (2010) Prejudice: Its social psychology. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
Bush, K.D. & Saltarelli, D. (2000). The Two Faces of Education in Ethnic Conflict, United Nations Children’s Fund, Innocenti Research Centre, Florence, Italy http://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/pdf/insight4.pdf (date of access 2 June 2016)
Cole, E.A. (2007) Introduction: Reconciliation and History. In E.A. Cole (ed.) Teaching the Violent Past: History Education and Reconciliation (pp. 1-28), Plymouth, Rowman and Littlefield Publishers Inc.
Council for Curriculum, Examinations and Assessment (2007). History Curriculum Key Stage 3. Belfast: CCEA (2007). Available at http://www.nicurriculum.org.uk/docs/key_stage_3/areas_of_learning/statutory_requirements/ks3_history.pdf (date of access 2 June 2016)
Davies L. (2004). Education and Conflict: Complexity and Chaos, London: Routledge.
Dovidio, J., Hewstone, M., Glick, P., & Esses, V. (2010). Prejudice, stereotyping and discrimination: Theoretical and empirical overview. In J. Dovidio, M. Hewstone, P. Glick, & V. Esses (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of prejudice, stereotyping and discrimination. (pp. 3-29). London: SAGE Publications Ltd.
Education and Training Inspectorate (ETI) (2006). History Matters: report on the extent to which the teaching of history in post-primary schools helps prepare young people to live in Northern Ireland’s divided and increasingly pluralist society, Bangor: DENI
Education and Training Inspectorate (ETI) (2013). Facing History and Ourselves – the Corrymeela Project: Second Interim Evaluation, Bangor: DENI
Facing our History Shaping the Future (FOHSTF) (2015). http://www.fohstf.co.uk/#/the-approach/4550813929 (date of access2 June 2016)
Furey A., Donnelly C., Hughes J. and Blaylock D. (2016) Interpretations of national Identity in post-conflict Northern Ireland: a comparison of different school settings, Research Papers in Education, http:dx.doi.org/10.1080/02671522.2016.1158855 (date of Access 2 June 2016)
Gannon M. (2014). Teaching Divided Histories: Teachers’ Experiences of using Digital Media in Teaching about Recent Northern Ireland History, Internal paper, Londonderry: TDH
Garry, J., and McNicholl, K. (2015). Understanding the ‘Northern Irish Identity. Paper presented as part of the Knowledge Exchange Seminar Series (KESS), Parliament Buildings, Stormont, Belfast, 13 May 2015. Available at http://www.niassembly.gov.uk/globalassets/documents/raise/knowledge_exchange/briefing_papers/series4/northern_ireland_identity_garry_mcnicholl_policy_document.pdf (date of access 2 June 2016)
Goldberg T. (2013). “It's in My Veins”: Identity and Disciplinary Practice in Students' Discussions of a Historical Issue, Theory & Research in Social Education 41(1), 33-64.
Heider, F. (1958) The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations. New York: Wiley.
Johns, M., Schmader, T., & Martens, A. (2005) Knowing is half the battle: Teaching stereotype threat as a means of improving women’s math performance.” Psychological Science, 16, 175-179.
Kitson, A. (2007) “History education and reconciliation in Northern Ireland”. In Teaching the violent past: History education and reconciliation, Edited by: Cole, E. A., 123 – 154. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Kolikant Y. B-D and Pollack S.(2015). The Dynamics of Non-Convergent learning with a Conflicting Other: Internally Persuasive Discourse as a framework for Articulating Successful Collaborative Learning, Cognition and Instruction, 33 (4), 322-356
Lee P. and Shemilt D. (2011) The concept that dares not speak its name; should empathy come out of the closet?, Teaching History, 143, 39-49.
McCombe, J. (2006) School history and the introduction of local and global citizenship into the Northern Ireland curriculum: The views of history teachers. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Ulster.
McCully, A. (2012). History teaching, conflict and the legacy of the past, Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 7 (2), 145-159.
Nerve Centre (2014). Teaching Divided Histories. http://www.nervecentre.org/teachingdividedhistories (date of access 2 June 2016)
Northern Ireland Government (2013) Together: Building a United Community. https://www.executiveoffice-ni.gov.uk/articles/together-building-united-community (accessed 2 June 2016)
Northern Ireland Statistical Research Agency (NISRA) 2011 Census http://www.nisra.gov.uk/Census/2011Census.html (date of access 2 June 2016).
Schweber, S. (2004). Making Sense of the Holocaust. NY: Teachers’ College Press.
Smith A. and Vaux T. (2003) Education, Conflict and International Development, London: Department of International Development.
Smith, M.E. (2005). Reckoning with the Past: Teaching history in Northern Ireland. Lanham: Lexington Books.
Stewart, T. L., Latu, I. M., Kawakami, K., & Myers, A. C. (2010). Consider the situation: Reducing automatic stereotyping through Situational Attribution Training.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46(1), 221-225.
Tajfel, H. (2003). Emotional prejudice, essentialism and nationalism – The 2002 Tajfel Lecture. European Journal of Social Psychology, 33 (6), 703 – 717.
Tajfel, H. and Turner, J. (1979) An Integrative Theory of Intergroup Conflict. In Austin, W. G.; Worchel, S. (Eds). The Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations. Monterey, CA: Brooks-Cole, 94–109.
Tajfel, H. and Turner, J. C. (1986) The social identity theory of inter-group behavior. In S. Worchel and L. W. Austin (eds.), Psychology of Intergroup Relations. Chigago: Nelson-Hall.
Richardson N. & Gallagher T. (eds.) (2011). Education for Diversity and Mutual Understanding: the experience of Northern Ireland. Bern: Peter Lang.
- History Education Social Psychology Northern Ireland Community Relations Pedagogy
- Controversial Issues