The incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-I (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are physiological gut peptides with insulin-releasing and extrapancreatic glucoregulatory actions. Incretin analogues/mimetics activate GLP-I or GIP receptors whilst avoiding physiological inactivation by dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4), and they represent one of the newest classes of antidiabetic drug. The first clinically approved GLP-1 mimetic for the treatment of type-2 diabetes is exenatide (Byetta/exendin) which is administered subcutaneously twice daily. Clinical trials of liraglutide, a GLP-1 analogue suitable for once-daily administration, are ongoing. A number of other incretin molecules are at earlier stages of development. This review discusses the various attributes of GLP-1 and GIP for diabetes treatment and summarises current clinical data. Additionally, it explores the therapeutic possibilities offered by preclinical agents, such as non-peptide GLP-1 mimetics, GLP-1/glucagon hybrid peptides, and specific GIP receptor antagonists.
|Journal||Best Practice and Research: Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism|
|Publication status||Published - Dec 2007|