Incretins such as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) are released from the gut and potentiate insulin release in a glucose-dependent manner. Although this action is generally believed to hinge on cAMP and protein kinase A signaling, up-regulated beta cell intermediary metabolism may also play a role in incretin-stimulated insulin secretion. By employing recombinant probes to image ATP dynamically in situ within intact mouse and human islets, we sought to clarify the role of GLP-1-modulated energetics in beta cell function. Using these techniques, we show that GLP-1 engages a metabolically coupled subnetwork of beta cells to increase cytosolic ATP levels, an action independent of prevailing energy status. We further demonstrate that the effects of GLP-1 are accompanied by alterations in the mitochondrial inner membrane potential and, at elevated glucose concentration, depend upon GLP-1 receptor-directed calcium influx through voltagedependent calcium channels. Lastly, and highlighting critical species differences, beta cells within mouse but not human islets respond coordinately to incretin stimulation. Together, these findings suggest that GLP-1 alters beta cell intermediary metabolism to influence ATP dynamics in a species-specific manner, and this may contribute to divergent regulation of the incretin-axis in rodents and man.