Laser Induced Porous 3D-Graphene/MnO 2 Electrodes Embedded in a Paper-Based Microfluidic Device for Point-of-Care Testing of Neurotransmitters in Finger-Prick Blood

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Abstract

Microfluidic electrochemical paper-based devices (ePADS) are a promising platform for point of care (PoC) diagnostics. In this work, we present a microfluidic device for home-based detection of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which is crucial for further understanding of nervous system disorders such as Parkinson's disease and other chronic mental illnesses including schizophrenia. Our device features a 3-electrode ePAD, where the electrodes are aligned along a wax-defined microfluidic channel, in a capillary flow device which uses Whatman filter paper as the porous wicking substrate. The working electrode was embedded directly into the Whatman filter-paper by using the paper as a precursor for laser-induced-graphene (LIG). To obtain LIG, we treat the Whatman filter in commercial flame-retardant spray and then treat with a CO2 infrared laser, this treatment produces a highly conductive, 3D porous graphene network with high surface area and electrical conductivity, directly in the paper matrix. The working and counter LIG electrodes are patterned by laser alongside the wax-defined microfluidic channel as shown in figure 1a, and a third reference electrode was defined in inkjet-printed silver (Dimatix DMP-2831) and then treated in commercial bleach to obtain an Ag/AgCl pseudo-reference electrode. The charge-transfer kinetics of the LIG surface was obtained by cyclic voltammetry (figure 1b) of the LIG electrode in a 3-electrode setup (platinum counter electrode and Ag/AgCl reference electrode in 3.0 M KCl). The LIG electrode was cycled in 0.1 M aqueous solution of KCl consisting of 5mM ferro-ferricyanide redox couple. The Randles–Sevcik analysis was used to obtain an electroactive surface area of 1.97 mm2 (2.5 times higher than the geometrical surface area) and the analysis also showed a rapid electron transport kinetic.
Original languageEnglish
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

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