Many leadership development studies consider developing leadership as a dynamic process that takes time. However, few evaluative inquiries examine the effects of time on leadership development outcomes. As the concept of time has begun to receive the attention it deserves in leadership research, we present a case for including temporal dimensions in leadership development outcomes research. We review conceptual evaluation frameworks and published empirical evaluations in order to highlight the fact that scholars have paid scant attention to time-related considerations in programme evaluation. By using a goal-free evaluation of healthcare leadership development programme as a case example, we illustrate six types of outcomes such as a symbol, rejuvenation, discovery, change, engagement and transformation and reveal their different temporal dimensions. Based on the findings, we argue that, for evaluations to be rigorous and more meaningful to key stakeholders, adopting a time-sensitive approach may be critical.
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- Evaluating leadership development
- evaluation frameworks
- goal-free evaluation
- temporal dimensions