Life after prostate cancer: A systematic literature review and thematic synthesis of the post-treatment experiences of Black African and Black Caribbean men

Olufikayo Bamidele, Helen McGarvey, Briege M Lagan, Nasreen Ali, Francis Chinegwundoh, Kader Parahoo, Eilis McCaughan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)
6 Downloads (Pure)


Evidence shows that there are significant ethnic variations in prostate cancer prevalence and outcomes. Specifically, Black African and Black Caribbean men may encounter different post-treatment experiences than Caucasian men due to their disproportionately higher risk of being diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer. But to date, no review of these experiences has been undertaken. This review synthesised findings from existing literature on the post-treatment experiences of Black African and Black Caribbean men with prostate cancer and identified pertinent issues which may be useful to inform practice and future research. Seven databases were systematically searched using developed search terms. Four qualitative studies were identified and critically appraised. Findings are summarised under four main themes: symptom experience, healthcare experience, marital and social relationships and coping strategies. Cultural definitions of masculinity influenced the meanings men gave to their post-treatment experiences. While men's experiences of healthcare varied, the provision of professional support to address their post-treatment distress was lacking. Men derived most support from wives, peers and church communities. A culturally sensitive approach which recognises diversity among Black African and Black Caribbean populations and treats individuals within their religious and socio-cultural contexts could potentially improve men's post-treatment experiences. Areas for further research were also identified.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e12784
JournalEuropean Journal of Cancer Care
Early online date16 Oct 2017
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 16 Oct 2017

Bibliographical note

Reference text: Agyemang, C., Bhopal, R., & Bruijnzeels, M. (2005). Negro, Black, Black African, African Caribbean, African American or what? Labelling African origin populations in the health arena in the 21st century. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 59, 1014–1018.

Akhazemea, D. (2015). The reshaping of religious and social landscape of Britain: The influence of the black majority churches. Available at: (Accessed February 8 2017).

Allen, C. (1997). Researching STD's in the Caribbean. In E. Leo-Rhynie, B. Bailey, & C. Barrow (Eds.), Gender: A Caribbean multidisciplinary perspective. Kingston, Jamaica: Ian Randle Publishers.

Anderson, B., Marshall-Lucette, S., & Webb, P. (2013). African and Afro-Caribbean men's experiences of prostate cancer. British Journal of Nursing, 22, 1296–1307.

Appleton, L., Wyatt, D., Perkins, E., Parker, C., Crane, J., Jones, A., … Pagett, M. (2015). The impact of prostate cancer on men's everyday life. European Journal of Cancer Care, 24, 71–84.

Aveyard, H. (2014). Doing a literature review in health and social care: A practical guide (3rd Edition). Maidenhead, England: Open University Press.

Bache, R. A., Bhui, K. S., Dein, S., & Korszun, A. (2012). African and Black Caribbean origin cancer survivors: A qualitative study of the narratives of causes, coping and care experiences. Ethnicity & Health, 17, 187–201.

Baruth, M., Wilcox, S., Saunders, R. P., Hooker, S. P., Hussey, J. R., & Blair, S. N. (2013). Perceived environmental church support and physical activity among black church members. Health Education & Behavior, 40, 712–720.

Beck, A. M., Robinson, J. W., & Carlson, L. E. (2009). Sexual intimacy in heterosexual couples after prostate cancer treatment: What we know and what we still need to learn. Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations, 27, 137–143.

Ben-Shlomo, Y., Evans, S., Ibrahim, F., Patel, B., Anson, K., Chinegwundoh, F., … Persad, R. (2008). Prostate cancer: The risk of prostate cancer amongst black men in the United Kingdom: The PROCESS Cohort Study. European Urology, 53, 99–105.

Bray, F., Ren, J., Masuyer, E., & Ferlay, J. (2013). Global estimates of cancer prevalence for 27 sites in the adult population in 2008. International Journal of Cancer, 132, 1133–1145.

Brown, M. (2014). African and African-Caribbean Londoners’ experiences of cancer services: A narrative approach. Doctoral thesis, University of West London.

Cancer Research UK. (2014). Survival statistics for prostate cancer. Available at: (Accessed July 21 2016).

Case, A.D., & Gordon, D. M. (2016). Contextualizing the health behavior of Caribbean men. In J. L. Roopnarine & D. Chadee (Eds.), Caribbean psychology: Indigenous contributions to a global discipline. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. (2009). Systematic reviews: CRD's guidance for undertaking reviews in healthcare. Available at:!SSL!/WebHelp/SysRev3.htm (Accessed July 18 2016).

Chambers, S. K., Pinnock, C., Lepore, S. J., Hughes, S., & O'Connell, D. L. (2011). A systematic review of psychosocial interventions for men with prostate cancer and their partners. Patient Education and Counseling, 85, e75–e88.

Chornokur, G., Dalton, K., Borysova, M. E., & Kumar, N. B. (2011). Disparities at presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and survival in African American men, affected by prostate cancer. The Prostate, 71, 985–997.

Coomarsingh, K. (2012). “Tie the Heifer, Loose the Bull”: Gender Inequality in the Caribbean. Available at: (Accessed February 14 2017).

Couper, J., Bloch, S., Love, A., Macvean, M., Duchesne, G. M., & Kissane, D. (2006). Psychosocial adjustment of female partners of men with prostate cancer: A review of the literature. Psycho-Oncology, 15, 937–953.

Cremin, M. (2015). Meeting the unmet support needs of BME men with prostate cancer. British Journal of Nursing, 24, 20.

Critical Appraisal Skills Programme. (2013). Making sense of evidence. Available at: (Accessed January 23 2016).

Das-Munshi, J., Leavey, G., Stansfeld, S., & Prince, M. (2012). Migration, social mobility and common mental disorders: Critical review of the literature and meta-analysis. Ethnicity & Health, 17, 17–53.

Gavin, A. T., Drummond, F. J., Donnelly, C., O'Leary, E., Sharp, L., & Kinnear, H. R. (2015). Patient-reported ‘ever had’ and ‘current’ long-term physical symptoms after prostate cancer treatments. BJU International, 116, 397–406.

Gerressu, M. (2016). Understanding Poor Sexual Health in Black British/Caribbean Young Men in London: A Qualitative Study of Influences on the Sexual Behaviour of Young Black Men. Doctoral thesis, University College London.

Gray, R. E., Fergus, K. D., & Fitch, M. I. (2005). Two Black men with prostate cancer: A narrative approach. British Journal of Health Psychology, 10, 71–84.

Grunfeld, E. A., Drudge-Coates, L., Rixon, L., Eaton, E., & Cooper, A. F. (2013). “The only way I know how to live is to work”: A qualitative study of work following treatment for prostate cancer. Health Psychology, 32, 75.

Hagen, B., GrantKalischuk, R., & Sanders, J. (2007). Disappearing floors and second chances: Men's journeys of prostate cancer. International Journal of Men's Health, 6, 201–223.

Jones, A. L., & Chinegwundoh, F. (2014). Update on prostate cancer in black men within the UK. Ecancermedicalscience, 8, 455.

Kazer, M. W., Harden, J., Burke, M., Sanda, M. G., Hardy, J., & Bailey, D. E., & PROSTQA Study Group. (2011). The experiences of unpartnered men with prostate cancer: A qualitative analysis. Journal of Cancer Survivorship, 5, 132–141.

Kendrick, R. D. (2010). Erectile dysfunction: A barrier to prostate cancer screening among African American men. Doctoral Thesis, Capella University.

King, A., Evans, M., Moore, T., Paterson, C., Sharp, D., Persad, R., & Huntley, A. (2015). Prostate cancer and supportive care: A systematic review and qualitative synthesis of men's experiences and unmet needs. European Journal of Cancer Care, 24, 618–634.

Koenig, H. G. (2012). Religion, spirituality, and health: The research and clinical implications. ISRN Psychiatry, 2012, 278730. doi: 10.5402/2012/278730

Marmot, M. G., Allen, J., Goldblatt, P., Boyce, T., McNeish, D., Grady, M., & Geddes, I. (2010). Fair society, healthy lives: The Marmot Review. Strategic review of health inequalities in England post-2010. Available at: file:///C:/Users/Olufikayo/Downloads/fair-society-healthy-lives-executive-summary.pdf (Accessed July 17 2016).

McCaughan, E., McKenna, S., McSorley, O., & Parahoo, K. (2015). The experience and perceptions of men with prostate cancer and their partners of the CONNECT psychosocial intervention: A qualitative exploration. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 71, 1871–1882.

McCaughan, E., Prue, G., McSorley, O., Northouse, L., Schafenacker, A., & Parahoo, K. (2013). A randomized controlled trial of a self-management psychosocial intervention for men with prostate cancer and their partners: A study protocol. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 69, 2572–2583.

Mulugeta, B. (2014). The influence of culture on the Views of Black African/African-Caribbean Men Living in the UK towards Cancer. Doctoral thesis, University of Central Lancashire.

Nanton, V., & Dale, J. (2011). ‘It don't make sense to worry too much’: The experience of prostate cancer in African-Caribbean men in the UK. European Journal of Cancer Care, 20, 62–71.

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (2015). Prostate Cancer. Available at: (Accessed December 18 2015).

Nelson, C. J., & Kenowitz, J. (2013). Communication and intimacy-enhancing interventions for men diagnosed with prostate cancer and their partners. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 10, 127–132.

NHS England. (2016). Achieving world-class cancer outcomes: a strategy for England 2015-2020-one year on 2015-16. Available at: (Accessed May 17 2017).

Northouse, L. L., Mood, D. W., Schafenacker, A., Montie, J. E., Sandler, H. M., Forman, J. D., … Kershaw, T. (2007). Randomized clinical trial of a family intervention for prostate cancer patients and their spouses. Cancer, 110, 2809–2818.

Odedina, F. T., Dagne, G., LaRose-Pierre, M., Scrivens, J., Emanuel, F., Adams, A., … Odedina, O. (2011). Within-group differences between native-born and foreign-born Black men on prostate cancer risk reduction and early detection practices. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 13(6), 996–1004.

Papadopoulos, I., & Lees, S. (2004). Cancer and communication: Similarities and differences of men with cancer from six different ethnic groups. European Journal of Cancer Care, 13, 154–162.

Pedersen, V. H., Armes, J., & Ream, E. (2012). Perceptions of prostate cancer in Black African and Black Caribbean men: A systematic review of the literature. Psycho-Oncology, 21, 457–468.

Peplau, L. A., Veniegas, R. C., Taylor, P. C., & DeBro, S. C. (1999). Sociocultural perspectives on the lives of women and men. In L. A. Peplau, S. C. DeBro, R. C. Veniegas, & P. C. Taylor (Eds.), Gender, culture and ethnicity (pp. 223–237). Mountain view, CA: Mayfield.

Phillips, S. P. (2005). Defining and measuring gender: A social determinant of health whose time has come. International Journal for Equity in Health, 4, 11.

Pinder, R.J., Ferguson, J., & Moller, H. (2016). Minority ethnicity patient satisfaction and experience: Results of the National Cancer Patient Experience Survey in England. British Medical Journal Open, 6, e011938.

Plummer, D. C. (2013). Masculinity and risk: How gender constructs drive sexual risks in the Caribbean. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 10, 165–174.

Prostate Cancer UK. (2014a). Men United v Prostate Cancer: Five Inequalities, five solutions. Available at: (Accessed July 19 2016).

Prostate Cancer UK. (2014b). Remember, remember: Four things all Black men should know about prostate cancer. Available at: (Accessed July 19 2016).

Quality Health. (2013). National Cancer Patient Experience Survey 2012-13 National Report. NHS England. Available at: (Accessed September 25th 2017).

Rajbabu, K., Chandrasekera, S., Zhu, G., Dezylva, S., Grunfeld, E., & Muir, G. (2007). Racial origin is associated with poor awareness of prostate cancer in UK men, but can be increased by simple information. Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases, 10, 256–260.

Rebbeck, T. R., Devesa, S. S., Chang, B. L., Bunker, C. H., Cheng, I., Cooney, K., … Zeigler-Johnson, C. M. (2013). Global patterns of prostate cancer incidence, aggressiveness, and mortality in men of african descent. Prostate Cancer, 2013, 560857.

Rivas, C., Matheson, L., Nayoan, J., Glaser, A., Gavin, A., Wright, P., Wagland, R., & Watson, E. (2016). Ethnicity and the prostate cancer experience: A qualitative metasynthesis. Psycho-Oncology, 25, 1147–1156.

Rivers, B. M., August, E. M., Gwede, C. K., Hart, A., Donovan, K. A., Pow-Sang, J. M., & Quinn, G. P. (2011). Psychosocial issues related to sexual functioning among African-American prostate cancer survivors and their spouses. Psycho-Oncology, 20, 106–110.

Rivers, B. M., August, E. M., Quinn, G. P., Gwede, C. K., Pow-Sang, J. M., Green, B. L., & Jacobsen, P. B. (2012). Understanding the psychosocial issues of African American couples surviving prostate cancer. Journal of Cancer Education, 27, 546–558.

Roth, A. J., Weinberger, M. I., & Nelson, C. J. (2008). Prostate cancer: Psychosocial implications and management. Future Oncology (London, England) 4, 561–568.

Taitt, H. E. (2015). Prostate Cancer and Afro-Caribbean Men: Experiences, Perceptions, and Beliefs. Doctoral thesis, Walden University.

TEARFUND. (2007). Churchgoing in the UK. Available at: (Accessed February 8 2017).

Thomas, J., & Harden, A. (2008). Methods for the thematic synthesis of qualitative research in systematic reviews. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 8, 1.

Viruell-Fuentes, E. A., Miranda, P. Y., & Abdulrahim, S. (2012). More than culture: Structural racism, intersectionality theory, and immigrant health. Social Science & Medicine, 75, 2099–2106.

Williams, M. (2014). Global Prostate Cancer Disparities in Black Men. Available at: (Accessed July 19 2016).

Wootten, A. C., Abbott, J. M., Osborne, D., Austin, D. W., Klein, B., Costello, A. J., & Murphy, D. G. (2014). The impact of prostate cancer on partners: A qualitative exploration. Psycho-Oncology, 23, 1252–1258.


  • Black African
  • Black Caribbean
  • Experience
  • Men
  • Prostate cancer
  • Post-treatment


Dive into the research topics of 'Life after prostate cancer: A systematic literature review and thematic synthesis of the post-treatment experiences of Black African and Black Caribbean men'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this