VK Gouda, Ibrahim Banat, WT Riad, S Mansour

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24 Citations (Scopus)


Laboratory and field immersion tests were conducted on UNS N04400 (Monel(dagger) 400) to assess its susceptibility toward microbial attack in Arabian Gulf seawater. Specimens were exposed to chlorinated and nonchlorinated seawater for periods up to four months. Other tests included exposure of UNS N04400 to a prepared culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The results indicated that SRB attack initiated beneath a black sulfide-rich deposit, overlaid by a green chloride-rich deposit, and a beige-colored calcareous scale was on all specimen surfaces after long exposure periods. The black layer was comprised mainly of one or more iron-nickel sulfides (Fe, Ni)(x)S(y) and nickel sulfide (Ni3S4), whereas the green layer was essentially CuCl2 x 3Cu(OH)2 with a low concentration of NiCl2. These deposits were in the form of nodules scattered on the surface, and, when removed, circular attacked areas or cavities were revealed. Scanning electron microscopy examinations of these areas indicated severe intergranular corrosion, and energy dispersive spectroscopy indicated selective dissolution of Ni and Fe.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)63-73
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1993

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