Iran faces environmental challenges such as erosion and extreme events, namely droughts and floods. These phenomena have frequently affected the country over the past decades and temperature rise has led to a more challenging situation. Iran started to implement national and provincial policies in the 1950s to cope with these phenomena. To provide an overview of Iran's efforts to tackle land degradation and climate change, this paper examined through literature since 2000 the stakeholders' policies, their interventions and obstacles to the mitigation of these environmental challenges. Government, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and international projects have been the primary actors. Erosion-sensitive soil plantation, drought-resistant seeds, and water-saving irrigation systems were the main interventions of these policies. However, the research stresses the lack of coordination between these stakeholders, and the absence of a comprehensive database that could enable climate change to be tackled better in the future.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research received no external funding. We are indebted to Lindsay Stringer, University of Leeds, for her valuable comments made to the earlier version which have improved the main debate. We also appreciate the two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments.
© 2018 by the authors.
Copyright 2018 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
- Climate change
- Land degradation neutrality
- Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)