Visual inertial odometers (VIOs) have received increasing attention in the area of indoor positioning due to the universality and convenience of the camera. However, the visual observation of VIO is more susceptible to the environment, and the error of observation affects the final positioning accuracy. To address this issue, we analyzed the causes of visual observation error that occur under different scenarios and their impact on positioning accuracy. We propose a new method of using the short-time reliability of pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) to aid in visual integrity monitoring and to reduce positioning error. The proposed method selects optimized positioning by automatically switching between outputs from VIO and PDR. Experiments were carried out to test and evaluate the proposed PDR-assisted visual integrity monitoring. The sensor suite of experiments consisted of a stereo camera and an inertial measurement unit (IMU). Results were analyzed in detailed and indicated that the proposed system performs better for indoor positioning within an environment that contains low illumination, little background texture information, or few moving objects.
- visual-inertial odometer
- pedestrian dead reckoning
- autonomous integrity monitoring