Repeatability and Reliability of New Air and Water Permeability Tests for Assessing the Durability of High Performance Concretes

Kai Yang, Muhammed Basheer, Bryan Magee, Yun Bai, Adrian Long

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)
48 Downloads (Pure)


This paper reports on the accuracy of new test methods developed to measure the air and water permeability of high-performance concretes (HPCs). Five representative HPC and one normal concrete (NC) mixtures were tested to estimate both repeatability and reliability of the proposed methods. Repeatability acceptance was adjudged using values of signal-noise ratio (SNR) and discrimination ratio (DR), and reliability was investigated by comparing against standard laboratory-based test methods (i.e., the RILEM gas permeability test and BS EN water penetration test). With SNR and DR values satisfying recommended criteria, it was concluded that test repeatability error has no significant influence on results. In addition, the research confirmed strong positive relationships between the proposed test methods and existing standard permeability assessment techniques. Based on these findings, the proposed test methods show strong potential to become recognized as international methods for determining the permeability of HPCs.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Materials in Civil Engineering
Issue number12
Early online date6 May 2015
Publication statusPublished - 15 Dec 2015

Bibliographical note

Reference text: ACI. (2013). “Report on non-destructive test methods for evaluation of concrete in structures.” Committee 228, ACI 228.2 R-13, Detroit, 82.
AIAG. (2002). Measurement system analysis: Reference manual , Southfield, MI, 239.
Andrade, C. , Gonzalez-Gasca, C. , and Torrent, R. (2000). “Suitability of torrent permeability tester to measure air-permeability of covercrete.” 5th CANMET/ACI Int. Conf. Durability of Concrete, V. M. Malhotra, ed., ACI, Detroit, 301–317.
Bamforth, P. B. (1987). “The relationship between permeability coefficients for concrete obtained using liquid and gas.” Mag. Concr. Res. , 39 (138 ), 3–11. [CrossRef]
Basheer, P. A. M. , Montgomery, F. R. , and Long, A. E. (1995). “‘CLAM’ tests for measuring in-situ permeation properties of concrete.” NDT&E Int. , 12 (1 ), 53–73.
BSI. (2000a). “Testing fresh concrete—2: Slump test.” BS-EN:12350-2, London, 8.
BSI. (2000b). “Testing fresh concrete—7: Air content. Pressure methods.” BS-EN:12350-7, London, 20.
BSI. (2000c). “Testing hardened concrete—Part 8: Depth of penetration of water under pressure.” BS-EN12390, London, 10.
BSI. (2005a). “Fly ash for concrete—Part 1: Definition, specifications, and conformity criteria.” BS-EN:450, London, 36.
BSI. (2005b). “Methods for mixing and sampling fresh concrete in the laboratory.” BS: 1881-125, London, 10.
BSI. (2006). “Ground granulated blast furnace slag for use in concrete, mortar, and grout—Part 1: Definitions, specifications, and conformity criteria.” BS-EN:15167, London, 28.
BSI. (2009a). “Admixtures for concrete, mortar, and grout concrete admixtures. Definitions, requirements, conformity, marking, and labelling.” BS-EN:934-2, London, 28.
BSI. (2009b). “Silica fume for concrete. Definitions, requirements, and conformity criteria.” BS-EN:13263-1, London, 28.
BSI. (2009c). “Testing hardened concrete-3: Compressive strength of test specimens.” BS-EN:12390-3, London, 22.
BSI (British Standards Institution). (2000d). “Cement. composition, specifications, and conformity criteria for common cements.” BS-EN:197-1, London, 52.
Chatterjee, S. , and Hadi, A. S. (2006). Regression analysis by example , 4th Ed., Wiley, Oxford, England. [CrossRef]
Collins, J. F. , Derucher, K. N. , and Korfiatis, G. P. (1986). “Permeability of concrete mixture. Part I: Literature review.” Civ. Eng. Pract. Des. Eng. , 5 , 579–638.
Concrete Society. (2008). “Permeability testing of site concrete: A review of methods and experience.” Technical Rep. No. 31, Surrey, England, 90.
Elahi, A. , Basheer, P. A. M. , Nanukuttan, S. V. , and Khan, Q. U. Z. (2010). “Mechanical and durability properties of high-performance concretes containing supplementary cementitious materials.” Constr. Build Mater. , 24 (3 ), 292–299. [CrossRef]
Graybill, F. A. , and Iyer, H. K. (1994). Regression analysis: Concepts and applications , Duxbury Press, Pacific Grove, CA.
Hall, C. , and Hoff, W. D. (2002). Water transport in brick, stone and concrete , Taylor & Francis Group, Oxford, England. [CrossRef]
ISO. (1994). “Accuracy (trueness and precision) of measurement methods and results. Part 4: Basic methods for the determination of the trueness of a standard measurement method.” ISO-5725-4, Geneva, 32.
Long, A. E. , Henderson, G. D. , and Montgomery, F. R. (2001). “Why assess the properties of near-surface concrete?” Constr. Build. Mater. , 15 (2–3 ), 65–79. [CrossRef]
Montgomery, D. C. (2009). Statistical quality control: A modern introduction , 6th Ed., Wiley, Oxford, England.
Montgomery, F. R. , and Adams, A. (1985). “Early experience with a new concrete permeability apparatus.” Proc., 2nd Int. Conf. Struct. Faults Rep., Engineering Technic Press, Edinburgh, U.K., 359–363.
Neville, A. M. , and Aitcin, P. C. (1998). “High-performance concrete—An overview.” Mater. Struct. , 31 (2 ), 111–117. [CrossRef]
Pocock, D. , andCorrans, J. (2007). “Concrete durability testing in Middle East construction.” Concr. Eng. Int. , 11 (2 ), 52–53.
RILEM Technical Committee TC116-PCD. (1999). “Tests for gas permeability of concrete. B: Measurement of the gas permeability of concrete by the RILEM-CEMBUREAU method.” Mater. Struct. , 32 (3 ), 176–178. [CrossRef]
Romer, M. (2005). “Effect of moisture and concrete composition on the Torrent permeability measurement.” Mater. Struct. , 38 (5 ), 541–547. [CrossRef]
Russell, D. , Basheer, P. A. M. , Rankin, G. I. B. , and Long, A. E. (2001). “Effect of relative humidity and air permeability on prediction of the rate of carbonation of concrete.” Struct. Build. , 146 (3 ), 319–326. [CrossRef]
Tang, L. , Nilsson, L.-O. , and Basheer, P. A. M. (2012). Resistance of concrete to chloride ingress: Testing and modelling , Spon Press, Oxford, England, 241.
Torrent, R. T. (1992). “A two-chamber vacuum cell for measuring the coefficient of permeability to air of the concrete cover on site.” Mater. Struct. , 25 (6 ), 358–365. [CrossRef]
Yang, K. , Basheer, P. A. M. , and Bai, Y. (2010). “Autoclam—An effective field method to measure permeability of high performance concretes.” 2nd Int. Conf. Dur. Concr. Struct.(ICDCS-2010), Hokkaido University Press, Sapporo, Japan, 173–182.
Yang, K. , Basheer, P. A. M. , Bai, Y. , Magee, B. , and Long, A. E. (2013). “Assessment of the effectiveness of the guard ring in obtaining a uni-directional flow in an in situ water permeability test.” Mater. Struct. , 48 (1–2 ), 167–183.
Zhang, M. H. , and Gjørv, O. E. (1991). “Permeability of high-strength lightweight concrete.” ACI Mater. J. , 88 (5 ), 463–469.


  • High-performance concrete (HPC)
  • Permeability testing
  • Signal-noise ratio (SNR)
  • Discrimination ratio (DR)
  • Reliability
  • Standard laboratory permeability test.


Dive into the research topics of 'Repeatability and Reliability of New Air and Water Permeability Tests for Assessing the Durability of High Performance Concretes'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this