Review and analysis of fire and explosion accidents in maritime transportation

Til Baalisampang, Abbassi Abbassi, Vikram Garaniya, Faisal Khan, Mohammad Dadashzadeh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Citations (Scopus)


The globally expanding shipping industry has several hazards such as collision, capsizing, foundering, grounding, stranding, fire, and explosion. Accidents are often caused by more than one contributing factor through complex interaction. It is crucial to identify root causes and their interactions to prevent and understand such accidents. This study presents a detailed review and analysis of fire and explosion accidents that occurred in the maritime transportation industry during 1990–2015. The underlying causes of fire and explosion accidents are identified and analysed. This study also reviewed potential preventative measures to prevent such accidents. Additionally, this study compares properties of alternative fuels and analyses their effectiveness in mitigating fire and explosion hazards. It is observed that Cryogenic Natural Gas (CrNG), Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and methanol have properties more suitable than traditional fuels in mitigating fire risk and appropriate management of their hazards could make them a safer option to traditional fuels. However, for commercial use at this stage, there exist several uncertainties due to inadequate studies, and technological immaturity. This study provides an insight into fire and explosion accident causation and prevention, including the prospect of using alternative fuels for mitigating fire and explosion risks in maritime transportation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)350-366
JournalOcean Engineering
Early online date16 Apr 2018
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jun 2018

Bibliographical note

Reference text: Abbassi R., Khan F., Garaniya V., Chai S., Chin C. and Hossain K.A., An integrated method for human error probability assessment during the maintenance of offshore facilities, Process Saf. Environ. Prot. 94, 2015, 172–179.
Ahrens M., Home Structure Fires, 2016, National Fire Protection Association, NFPA Research; Quincy, MA.
Akten N., Analysis of shipping casualties in the Bosphorus, J. Navig. 57 (03), 2004, 345–356.
Akten N., Shipping accidents: a serious threat for marine environment, J. Black Sea/Mediterranean Environ. 12 (3), 2006.
Allianz Global Corporate and Specialty, Safety and Shipping Review 2016, 2016, SE Fritz-schaeffer-strasse 9, 81737 Munich, Germany.
Allianz Global Corporate and Specialty, Safety and Shipping Review 2017 an Annual Review of Trends and Developments in Shipping Losses and Safety, 2017, Munich, Germany.
American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), Review and Analysis of Accident Databases: 1990-1999 Data, Houston, 2003.
American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), Guidance Notes on the Implementation of Human Factors Engineering into the Design of Offshore Installations, 2014, Houston, TX, 77060, USA.
Apostol-Mates R. and Barbu A., Human error-The main factor in marine accidents, Sci. Bull. 'Mircea Cel. Batran' Nav. Acad. 19 (2), 2016, 451–454.
Astbury G.R., A review of the properties and hazards of some alternative fuels, Process Saf. Environ. Prot. 86 (6), 2008, 397–414.
Astbury G. and Hawksworth S., Spontaneous ignition of hydrogen leaks: a review of postulated mechanisms, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 32 (13), 2007, 2178–2185.
ATSB, Engine Room Fire Aboard the Tanker Team Heina, 1995.
ATSB, Independent Investigation into the Boiler Explosions on Board the Panamanian Registrered Bulk Carrier Shirane off Newcastle, New South Wales 2 April 2007, 2007a.
ATSB, Independent Investigation into the Leakage of Dangerous Goods on Board the Liberian Registered Container Ship Kota Pahlawan off the Coast of Australia on 16 June 2006, 2007b.
ATSB, Independent Investigation into the Engine Room Fire on Board the Bahamas Registered General Cargo Ship Baltimar Boreas off Newcastle, New South Wales 9 February 2007, 2008.
ATSB, Engine Room Fire on Board the Container Ship Maersk Duffield in Moreton Bay, Queensland, 2010.
ATSB, Cargo Hold Fire on Board BBC Baltic at Port Hedland, Western Australia, 2012a.
ATSB, Thermal oil Heater Explosion on Board the Products Tanker Qian Chi at Brisbane, Queensland 16 January 2011, 2012b.
ATSB, Engine Room Fire on Board the Bulk Carrier Marigold, 2016a.
ATSB, Fire on Board the Livestock Carrier Ocean Drover, 2016b.
Babrauskas V., How do electrical wiring faults lead to structure ignitions, In: Proc. Fire and Materials 2001 Conf, 2001, 39–51.
Babrauskas V., Ignition Handbook, 2003, Fire Science Publishers; Issaquah, WA.
Babrauskas V., Research on electrical fires: the state of the art, Fire Saf. Sci. 9, 2008, 3–18.
Baker C. and McCafferty D., Accident database review of human element concerns: what do the results mean for classification?, In: Proc. Int Conf.‘Human Factors in Ship Design and Operation, 2005, RINA Feb. Citeseer.
Ball M. and Wietschel M., The future of hydrogen–opportunities and challenges, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 34 (2), 2009, 615–627.
Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission (HELCOM), HELCOM Manual on Co-operation in Response to Marine Pollution within the Framework of the Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area, (Helsinki Convention) vol. 2, 2002.
Baltic Sea Maritime Incidence Response Group (MIRG), Baltic Sea MIRG Project 2014-2016 Ship Fire Incident Analysis, 2017, The Finnish Border Guard, Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland.
Barton J. and Nolan P., Incidents in the chemical industry due to thermal runaway chemical reactions, Hazards X Process Saf. Fine Spec. Chem. Plants 115, 1989, 3–18.
Bejger A. and Drzewieniecki J., Analysis of tribological processes occurring in precision pairs based on example of fuel injection pumps of marine diesel engines, Zesz. Nauk. Akad. Morsk. w Szczecin. 2015.
Beland B., Electrical damages—cause or consequence?, J. Forensic Sci. 29 (3), 1984a, 747–761.
Beland B., Electricity as a Cause of Fires, 1984b, Society of Fire Protection Engineers; Boston, MA.
Béland B., Fires of electrical origin, Fire Arson Invest. 43 (2), 1992, 35–41.
Bernton H., Kovarik W., Sklar S., Griffin B. and Woolsey R., The Forbidden Fuel: a History of Power Alcohol, 2010, Lincoln/London.
Bhandari J., Khan F., Abbassi R., Garaniya V. and Ojeda R., Pitting degradation modeling of Ocean steel structures using Bayesian network, J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng. 139 (5), 2017a, 051402.
Bhandari J., Lau S., Abbassi R., Garaniya V., Ojeda R., Lisson D. and Khan F., Accelerated pitting corrosion test of 304 stainless steel using ASTM G48; Experimental investigation and concomitant challenges, J. Loss Prev. Process Ind. 47, 2017b, 10–21.
Bouman E.A., Lindstad E., Rialland A.I. and Strømman A.H., State-of-the-art technologies, measures, and potential for reducing GHG emissions from shipping – a review, Transp. Res. Part D Transp. Environ. 52 (Part A), 2017, 408–421.
Brnic J., Krscanski S., Lanc D., Brcic M., Turkalj G., Canadija M. and Niu J., Analysis of the mechanical behavior, creep resistance and uniaxial fatigue strength of martensitic steel X46Cr13, Materials 10 (4), 2017, 388.
BSU, Investigation Report 255/12: Fire and Explosion on Board the MSC Flaminia on 14 July 2012 in the Atlantic and the Ensuing Events, 2014.
BSU, Investigation Report 99/13: Fire on the con-ro Carrier Atlantic Cartier on 1 May 2013 in the Port of Hamburg, 2015.
Butt N., Johnson D., Pike K., Pryce-Roberts N. and Vigar N., 15 Years of Shipping Accidents: a Review for WWF, Project Report2013, Southampton Solent University; Southampton.
Bužančić Primorac B. and Parunov J., Review of Statistical Data on Ship Accidents, 2016, Maritime Technology and Engineering, 809–814.
Campbell R., Fires in Industrial or Manufacturing Properties, 2016, National Fire Protection Association One-Stop Data Shop, NFPA Research; Quincy, MA.
Campbell R., Electrical Fires, 2017, National Fire Protection Association, NFPA Research, Data and Analytics Division.
Celik M. and Cebi S., Analytical HFACS for investigating human errors in shipping accidents, Accid. Anal. Prev. 41 (1), 2009, 66–75.
Celik M., Lavasani S.M. and Wang J., A risk-based modelling approach to enhance shipping accident investigation, Saf. Sci. 48 (1), 2010, 18–27.
Chang J.I. and Lin C.-C., A study of storage tank accidents, J. Loss Prev. Process Ind. 19 (1), 2006, 51–59.
Chryssakis C., Balland O., Tvete H. and Brandsæter A., Alternative fuels for shipping, In: DNV GL Strategic Research & Innovation, 2014, Position Paper 1.
Clancey V., Calcium Hypochlorite Fire and Explosion Hazard, Hazards from Pressure: Exothermic Reactions, Unstable Substances, Pressure Relief and Accidental Discharge: a Three-day Symposium, 1987, Pergamon Pr, 11.
ClassNK, Guidelines for the Prevention of Human Error Aboard Ships: through the Ergonomic Design of Marine Machinery Systems, 2010, ClassNK NIPPPON KAIJI KYOKAI, Chiba 267–260056.
Daeid N.N., Fire Investigation, 2004, CRC Press.
Darbra R.-M. and Casal J., Historical analysis of accidents in seaports, Saf. Sci. 42 (2), 2004, 85–98.
Dasgupta A. and Pecht M., Material failure mechanisms and damage models, IEEE Trans. Reliab. 40 (5), 1991, 531–536.
Det Norske Veritas, Engine Room Fires Can Be Avoided, 2000, DNV; Veritasveien, Norway.
Dhillon B. and Liu Y., Human error in maintenance: a review, J. Qual. Mainten. Eng. 12 (1), 2006, 21–36.
DMAIB, Marine Accident Report Charlotte Maersk Fire 7 July 2010, 2012.
Eleftheria E., Apostolos P. and Markos V., Statistical analysis of ship accidents and review of safety level, Saf. Sci. 85, 2016, 282–292.
Ellis J., Undeclared dangerous goods—risk implications for maritime transport, WMU J. Marit. Aff. 9 (1), 2010, 5–27.
Ellis J., Analysis of accidents and incidents occurring during transport of packaged dangerous goods by sea, Saf. Sci. 49 (8), 2011, 1231–1237.
Ellis J. and Tanneberger K., Study on the Use of Ethyl and Methyl Alcohol as Alternative Fuels in Shipping, 2015, European Maritime Safety Agency.
EMSA, Alternative Fuels, 2017.
Energy Institute, Guidance for Corrosion Management in Oil and Gas Production and Processing May 2008, 2008.
Fine B.M. and Kurtz B.E., Method for Shipping Exothermic Materials, 2000, Google Patents.
Fort E., Methanol as a Marine Fuel–the METHAPU Project, 2011, Lloyds Register; Marindagen.
Foster C., Misdeclared or undeclared dangerous goods cargoes: ignorance, incompetence or deceit, Swed. Club Lett. 1, 2007, 16–17.
Grahn M., Taljegård M., Bengtsson S., Andersson K. and Johnson H., Cost-effective Choices of marine Fuels under Stringent Carbon Dioxide Targets, In: Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Technologies, Operations, Logistics and Modelling in Low Carbon Shipping, 2013, University College London.
Gustin J.-L., How the study of accident case histories can prevent runaway reaction accidents from recurring, Process Saf. Environ. Prot. 80 (1), 2002, 16–24.
Hakkarainen T., Hietaniemi J., Hostikka S., Karhula T., Kling T., Mangs J., Mikkola E. and Oksanen T., Survivability for ships in case of fire. Final report of SURSHIP-FIRE project, [Laivojenselviytymiskyky tulipalossa. SURSHIP-FIRE-projektin loppuraportti], Espoo. VTT Tiedotteita Res. Notes 2497, 2009, 120.
Harrald J.R., Mazzuchi T., Spahn J., Van Dorp R., Merrick J., Shrestha S. and Grabowski M., Using system simulation to model the impact of human error in a maritime system, Saf. Sci. 30 (1), 1998, 235–247.
Hassel M., Asbjørnslett B.E. and Hole L.P., Underreporting of maritime accidents to vessel accident databases, Accid. Anal. Prev. 43 (6), 2011, 2053–2063.
Hatayama H., Chen J., Vera E., Stephens R. and Storm D., A Method for Determining the Compatibility of Hazardous Wasters, 1980, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); Washington, D.C.
Haveman J.D. and Shatz H.J., Protecting the Nation's Seaports: Balancing Security and Cost, 2006, Public Policy Instit. of CA.
Hemmatian B., Abdolhamidzadeh B., Darbra R.M. and Casal J., The significance of domino effect in chemical accidents, J. Loss Prev. Process Ind. 29 (Supplement C), 2014, 30–38.
Hetherington C., Flin R. and Mearns K., Safety in shipping: the human element, J. Saf. Res. 37 (4), 2006, 401–411.
HID Statistics Report (HSR), Offshore Hydrocarbon Releases Statisitcs and Analysis, 2002, HID Statistics Report HSE 2002 0022003, Human Safety Executive (HSE).
Hine G.A., In: Almirall J.R. and Furton K.G., (Eds.), Fire Scene Investigation: an Introduction for Chemists. Analysis and Interpretation of Fire Scene Evidence, 2004, CRC Press; Boca Raton.
Ho T.C., Duh Y.S. and Chen J., Case studies of incidents in runaway reactions and emergency relief, Process Saf. Prog. 17 (4), 1998, 259–262.
Hoffmann P.N., Eide M.S. and Endresen Ø., Effect of proposed CO2 emission reduction scenarios on capital expenditure, Marit. Pol. Manag. 39 (4), 2012, 443–460.
Hollnagel E., Risk+barriers=safety?, Saf. Sci. 46 (2), 2008, 221–229.
Islam R., Abbassi R., Garaniya V. and Khan F.I., Determination of human error probabilities for the maintenance operations of marine engines, J. Ship Prod. Des. 32 (4), 2016, 226–234.
Islam R., Yu H., Abbassi R., Garaniya V. and Khan F., Development of a monograph for human error likelihood assessment in marine operations, Saf. Sci. 91, 2017, 33–39.
Jadin M.S. and Taib S., Recent progress in diagnosing the reliability of electrical equipment by using infrared thermography, Infrared Phys. Technol. 55 (4), 2012, 236–245.
Karahalios H., The Management of Maritime Regulations, 2015, Routledge.
Karwowski W., Ergonomics and human factors: the paradigms for science, engineering, design, technology and management of human-compatible systems, Ergonomics 48 (5), 2005, 436–463.
Karwowski W., The Discipline of Human Factors and Ergonomics. Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics, fourth ed., 2012, 1–37.
Khan F. and Howard R., Statistical approach to inspection planning and integrity assessment, Insight Non Destr. Test. Cond. Monit. 49 (1), 2007, 26–36.
Kolwzan K. and Narewski M., Alternative fuels for marine applications, Latv. J. Chem. 51 (4), 2012, 398.
Kowalewicz A., Combustion Systems of High-speed Piston IC Engines, 1984.
Kumar S., Kwon H.-T., Choi K.-H., Lim W., Cho J.H., Tak K. and Moon I., LNG: an eco-friendly cryogenic fuel for sustainable development, Appl. Energy 88 (12), 2011, 4264–4273.
Kwiecińska B., Cause-and-effect analysis of ship fires using relations diagrams, Zesz. Nauk. Akad. Morsk. w Szczecin. 2015.
Land H.B., III, Determination of the cause of arcing faults in low-voltage switchboards, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 44 (2), 2008, 430–436.
Land H.B., III and Fowler K.R., Sensor for Detecting Arcing Faults, 2009, Google Patents.
Litzke W.-L. and Wegrzyn J., Natural Gas as a Future Fuel for Heavy-duty Vehicles, 2001, SAE Technical Paper.
Liu L., Logan K.P., Cartes D.A. and Srivastava S.K., Fault detection, diagnostics, and prognostics: software agent solutions, IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 56 (4), 2007, 1613–1622.
Luo M., Emission reduction in international shipping—the hidden side effects, Marit. Pol. Manag. 40 (7), 2013, 694–708.
MacCarley A., Methanol Fuel Safety-a Practical Guide, 2013.
Machiele P.A., Summary of the Fire Safety Impacts of Methanol as a Transportation Fuel, 1990, SAE International.
Maddox consulting, Analysis of Market Barriers to Cost Effective GHG Emission Reductions in the Maritime Transport Sector, 2012.
Maggio M., Maze T., Waggoner K.M. and Dobie J., Challenges for integration of alternative fuels in the transit industry, Transport. Res. Rec. 1308, 1991.
MAIB, Marine Accident Investigation Branch (MAIB) - Safety Digest 02/1999, 1999.
MAIB, Report of the Investigation of the Fire on Board Multitank Ascania in the Pentland Firth on 19 March 1999, 2000.
MAIB, Report on the Investigation of the Machinery Breakdown and Subsequent Fire Onboard Maersk Doha in Chesapeake Bay, off Norfolk, Virginia, USA 2 October 2006, 2007.
Major Hazard Incident Data Service (MHIDAS), Major Hazard Incident Data Service, OHS_ROM, Reference Manual, 2002.
Maleque M.A. and Salit M.S., Materials Selection and Design, 2013a, Springer.
Maleque M.A. and Salit M.S., Mechanical Failure of Materials, Materials Selection and Design, 2013b, Springer, 17–38.
Manuel M.E., Maritime Risk and Organizational Learning, 2011, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Marine Incident Investigation Unit, Departmental Investigation the Accommodation Fire on Board the Taiwanese Bulk Carrier Ming Mercy off Port Kembla, NSW on 7 August 1997, 1997.
Maritime Safety Committee 81st session, Study on Incidents of Explosions on Chemical and Product Tankers, Report of the Activities of the Inter-industry Working Group (IIWG), 2006, Maritime Safety Committee: Internation Maritime Organization.
McCormick B., Insulated Storage System with Balanced thermal Energy Flow, 2011, Google Patents.
McWhorter J.D., Is Renewable Energy Sustainable: Case Study of the Product Life Cycle of Brazilian Ethanol, 3rd World Sustainability Forum 1–30 November 2013, 2013.
Midland Engineering L., Human Factors and Ergonomics, 2017.
Mouritz A. and Mathys Z., Post-fire mechanical properties of marine polymer composites, Compos. Struct. 47 (1), 1999, 643–653.
Munich Re Group, Containers Transport. Technology. Insurance. Central Division: Corporate Communications, 2002, Koniginstrasse 107, 80802, Muchen, Germany.
Nalli K., Corrosion and its Mitigation in the Oil and Gas Industry. An Overview. PM-pipeliner Report, 2010.
National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme (NICNAS), Full Public Report: Sodium Ethyl Xanthate Priority Existing Chemical No. 5, AGPS, Canberra, 1995.
National Research Council, Fishing Vessel Safety: Blueprint for a National Program, 1991, National Academies Press.
Niall R. and Roger R., Liquefied Gas Fire hazard Management: an Overview of a Forthcoming SIGTTO Publication, 2002, Gastech 2002, Qatar.
Noroozi A., Abbassi R., Khan F. and MacKinnon S., Comparative evaluation of human error probability assessment techniques, In: Third National Conference on Safety Engineering and HSE Management, 2010, 1–10.
Nowell G.P., On the Road with Methanol: the Present and Future Benefits of Methanol Fuel, 1994, Acurex Environmental; Durham, NC, Technical Report (2474).
NTSB, Fire Aboard Vehicle Carrier M/V Alliance Norfolk, 2013.
NTSB, National Transportation Safety Board Marine Accident Brief Fire Aboard Containership Gunde Maersk, 2015.
NTSB, Marine Accident Brief: Fire Aboard Freighter Alpena, 2016.
O'Leary M. and Chappell S.L., Confidential incident reporting systems create vital awareness of safety problems, ICAO J. 51 (8), 1996, 11–13, 27.
Okoh P. and Haugen S., Maintenance-related major accidents: classification of causes and case study, J. Loss Prev. Process Ind. 26 (6), 2013, 1060–1070.
Okoh P. and Haugen S., A study of maintenance-related major accident cases in the 21st century, Process Saf. Environ. Prot. 92 (4), 2014, 346–356.
Ozcayir Z., Imo-international maritime dangerous goods (IMDG) code and amendment 33-06, J. Int. Marit. LAW 13 (6), 2007, 451.
O'Neil W.A., The human element in shipping, WMU J. Marit. Aff. 2 (2), 2003, 95–97.
Papanikolaou A., Eliopoulou E., Alissafaki A., Mikelis N., Aksu S. and Delautre S., Casualty analysis of Aframax tankers, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part M J. Eng. Marit. Environ. 221 (2), 2007, 47–60.
Parasuraman R., Neuroergonomics: research and practice, Theor. issues Ergon. Sci. 4 (1–2), 2003, 5–20.
Paula H., Cassa G. and Hansen R., Investigation of Fuel Oil/Lube Oil Spray Fires on Board Vessels vol. III, 1998.
Pennie D., Brook-Carter N. and Gibson W., Human factors guidance for maintenance, In: Human Factors in Ship Design, Safety and Operation Conference, 2007.
Popoola L.T., Grema A.S., Latinwo G.K., Gutti B. and Balogun A.S., Corrosion problems during oil and gas production and its mitigation, Int. J. Ind. Chem. 4 (1), 2013, 35.
Rao P.G. and Raghavan K.V., Hazard and risk potential of chemical handling at ports, J. Loss Prev. Process Ind. 9 (3), 1996, 199–204.
Reason J., Human error: models and management, BMJ Br. Med. J. 320 (7237), 2000, 768.
Roberts S.E. and Marlow P.B., Casualties in dry bulk shipping (1963–1996), Mar. Pol. 26 (6), 2002, 437–450.
Roberts S.E., Marlow P.B. and Jaremin B., Shipping casualties and loss of life in UK merchant shipping, UK second register and foreign flags used by UK shipping companies, Mar. Pol. 36 (3), 2012, 703–712.
Roberts S.E., Pettit S.J. and Marlow P.B., Casualties and loss of life in bulk carriers from 1980 to 2010, Mar. Pol. 42, 2013, 223–235.
Rothblum A.M., Human Error and Marine Safety, 2000, National Safety Council Congress and Expo; Orlando, FL.
Sam B., World Maritime Day: Shipping Safety 100 Years after the Titanic, 2012.
Schröder M. and Prause G., Transportation of dangerous goods in Green transport corridors-conclusions from Baltic Sea region, Transp. Telecommun. J. 17 (4), 2016, 322–334.
Schröder-Hinrichs J.U., Baldauf M. and Ghirxi K.T., Accident investigation reporting deficiencies related to organizational factors in machinery space fires and explosions, Accid. Anal. Prev. 43 (3), 2011, 1187–1196.
Schuda R.S., The international maritime organization and the draft convention on liability and compensation in connection with the carriage of hazardous and noxious substances by sea: an update on recent activity, U. Miami L. Rev. 46, 1991, 1009.
Scutti J. and McBrine W., Introduction to Failure Analysis and Prevention, 2002, ASM International; Materials Park, OH, 3–23, 2002.
Semin R.A.B., A technical review of compressed natural gas as an alternative fuel for internal combustion engines, Am. J. Eng. Appl. Sci. 1 (4), 2008, 302–311.
Semolinos P., Olsen G. and Giacosa A., LNG as marine fuel: challenges to be overcome, In: 17th International Conference & Exhibition on Liquefied Natural Gas, 2013, TOTAL Gas & Power; Houston.
Shappell S.A. and Wiegmann D.A., A human error approach to accident investigation: the taxonomy of unsafe operations, Int. J. Aviat. Psychol. 7 (4), 1997, 269–291.
Shichuan S., Liang W., Yuhong N. and Xiang G., Numerical computation and characteristic analysis on the center shift of fire whirls in a ship engine room fire, Saf. Sci. 50 (1), 2012, 12–18.
Simmons F., Quigley D., Whyte H., Robertson J., Freshwater D., Boada-Clista L. and Laul J., Chemical storage: myths vs. reality, J. Chem. Health Saf. 15 (2), 2008, 23–30.
Simmons F., Quigley D., Whyte H., Robertson J. and Freshwater D., Chemical safety: asking the right questions, J. Chem. Health Saf. 16 (3), 2009, 34–39.
Skjong E., Volden R., Rødskar E., Molinas M., Johansen T.A. and Cunningham J., Past, present, and future challenges of the marine vessel's electrical power system, IEEE Trans. Transp. Electr. 2 (4), 2016, 522–537.
Smith L.E. and McCoskrie D., What causes wiring fires in residences?, Fire J. 1990.
Sørensen P.A., Kiil S., Dam-Johansen K. and Weinell C.E., Anticorrosive coatings: a review, J. Coatings Technol. Res. 6 (2), 2009, 135–176.
Stephens R.I., Fatemi A., Stephens R.R. and Fuchs H.O., Metal Fatigue in Engineering, 2000, John Wiley & Sons.
Stuards M., Freighter Alpena Heavily Damaged by Fire in Sturgeon Bay, Wis, U.S. VesselFinder, 2015.
Casualty and Incident Reports and Analysis, Sub-committee on Dangerous Goods, Solid Cargoes and Containers, 13th Session, Agenda Item 6, 2008a, International Maritime Organization.
Sub-committee on Dangerous Goods, Solid Cargoes and Containers, 13th Session, Agenda Item 20, Report to the Maritime Safety Committee, 2008b, International Maritime Organisation.
Takeshita T. and Yamaji K., Important roles of Fischer–Tropsch synfuels in the global energy future, Energy Pol. 36 (8), 2008, 2773–2784.
Taljegard M., Brynolf S., Grahn M., Andersson K. and Johnson H., Cost-effective choices of marine fuels in a carbon-constrained world: results from a global energy model, Environ. Sci. Technol. 48 (21), 2014, 12986–12993.
Tamburello S.M., On Determining Spontaneous Ignition in Porous Materials, 2011, University of Maryland; College Park.
Tournadre J., Anthropogenic pressure on the open ocean: the growth of ship traffic revealed by altimeter data analysis, Geophys. Res. Lett. 41 (22), 2014, 7924–7932.
Troitzsch J.H., Fires, statistics, ignition sources, and passive fire protection measures, J. Fire Sci. 34 (3), 2016, 171–198.
TSB, Marine Investigation Report: Crankcase Explosion Oil Tanker “IRVING NORDIC” off Île Aux Oeufs, Quebec 11 March 1993, 1995.
TSB, Marine Investigation Report: Explosion and Fire Aboard the Petroleum Tanker Petrolab and the Subsequent Destruction of the Government Wharf at St. Barbe, Newfoundland 19 July 1997, 1999.
United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, 2006, Contship Containerlines, Ltd V. PPG Industries, 05-0267-cv.
United State Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, 05-6116-cv, in Re M/V DG HARMONY, 2008c.
U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board, Hazard investigation: Improving Reactive Hazard Management, 2002.
US Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board, Case Study Hot Work Control and Safety Work Practices at Oil and Gas Production wells, 2007.
US Coast Guard, Cargo Compatibility Chart and Chemical Hazards Response Information System (CHRIS), 1980.
US Coast Guard, Report on the Explosion and Sinking of the Chemical Tanker Bow Mariner in the Atlantic Ocean on 28 February 2004, 2004, Marine Safety Office; Hampton Roads, Virginia, 56pp.
Uğurlu Ö., Analysis of fire and explosion accidents occurring in tankers transporting hazardous cargoes, Int. J. Ind. Ergon. 55 (Supplement C), 2016, 1–11.
Uğurlu Ö., Köse E., Yıldırım U. and Yüksekyıldız E., Marine accident analysis for collision and grounding in oil tanker using FTA method, Marit. Pol. Manag. 42 (2), 2015, 163–185.
Vilchez J.A., Sevilla S., Montiel H. and Casal J., Historical analysis of accidents in chemical plants and in the transportation of hazardous materials, J. Loss Prev. Process Ind. 8 (2), 1995, 87–96.
Wagenaar W.A. and Groeneweg J., Accidents at sea: multiple causes and impossible consequences, Int. J. Man Mach. Stud. 27 (5), 1987, 587–598.
Wang Y.-W. and Shu C.-M., Calorimetric thermal hazards of tert-butyl hydroperoxide solutions, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 49 (19), 2010, 8959–8968.
Wang Y., Duh Y. and Shu C., Thermal runaway hazards of tert-butyl hydroperoxide by calorimetric studies, J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 95 (2), 2009, 553–557.
Weng J. and Yang D., Investigation of shipping accident injury severity and mortality, Accid. Anal. Prev. 76, 2015, 92–101.
Whittingham R., The Blame Machine: Why Human Error Causes Accidents, 2004, Routledge.
WORKSAFE BC, Human Factors, 2017.
Yip, T.L., Port traffic risks – a study of accidents in Hong Kong waters. Transp. Res. Part E, Logist. Transp. Rev. 44(5), 921–931.


  • Maritime accidents
  • Fire and explosion
  • Preventive measures
  • Alternative fuels


Dive into the research topics of 'Review and analysis of fire and explosion accidents in maritime transportation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this