This article examines the complex nature of the relationship between international sport and politics in the twenty- rst century. It does so by considering the cultural and geo-political pro les of those countries that are expressly pursuing the hosting of major international sporting events, such as the Olympic Games and the FIFA World Cup. It focuses, on the emergence of a raft of ‘new’ countries seeking to stage such global mega-events and considers why they would be so keen to do so when, based on participation levels amongst their indigenous peoples such a decision would appear to have little popular support. More to the point, there would seem to be increasing commonality amongst these ‘new’ nation-states in terms of their political pro les, their attitudes towards minorities, their approach to the advancement of a rights agenda, and to their motivations for hosting major sporting events in the rst instance. Ultimately the article poses the question of whether sport should readily lend its remaining credibility to such nation-states or whether its ready acquiescence of the same actually says more about its virtual preoccupation with commercial return, persistent mal-governance or, in some cases, corruption.
Bibliographical noteReference text: Adams, M. 2016. “Feminist Politics and Sport.” In Routledge Handbook of Sport and Politics, edited by A. Bairner, J. Kelly, and J. Lee, 35–51. London: Routledge.
Black, D., and B. Peacock. 2013. “Sport and Diplomacy.” In e Oxford Handbook of Modern Diplomacy, edited by A. Cooper, J. Heine, and R. akur, 12–27. London: Oxford Press.
FIA Statutes. Vol. 1. Accessed November 23, 2016. www. a.com
Forsythe, D. 2009. Encyclopedia of Human Rights. Vol. 1. London: Oxford University Press. Gellner, E. 1998. Nationalism. Phoenix, AZ: Phoenix.
Gramsci, A. 1992. Prison Notebooks: Volume 1. New York: Columbia University Press.
Hargreaves, J. 2000. Heroines of Sport: e Politics of Di erence and Identity. London: Routledge. Horne, J. 2016. “ e Contemporary Politics of Sport Mega-events.” In Routledge Handbook of Sport
and Politics, edited by A. Bairner, J. Kelly, and J. Lee, 89–103. London: Routledge.
Horne, J., and G. Whannel. 2016. Understanding the Olympics. London: Routledge.
Hoye, C., and G. Cuskelly. 2007. Sport Governance. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Kilgallen, C. 2013. “Developing Elite Sporting Talent in Qatar: e Aspire Academy for Sports
Excellence.” In Sport Management in the Middle East: A Case Study Analysis, edited by M. B.
Sulayem, S. O’Connor, and D. Hassan, 173–192. London: Routledge.
O’Connor, S. 2013. “Sport Consumers in the Middle East.” In Sport Management in the Middle East:
A Case Study Analysis, edited by M. B. Sulayem, S. O’Connor, and D. Hassan, 65–86. London:
Preuss, H., ed. 2007. e Impact and Evaluation of Major Sporting Events. London: Routledge. Riordan, J., and R. Jones. 1999. Sport and Physical Education in China. London: E&FN Spon. Rostow, W. 1990. e Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-communist Agenda. Cambridge: Cambridge
Wallerstein, I. 2004. World-systems Analysis. London: Duke University Press.