Sport Psychology Consulting With Indigenous Athletes: The Case of New Zealand Māori

Ken Hodge, Lee-Ann Sharp, Justin Ihirangi Heke

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    9 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Sport psychology consulting with athletes who are from an indigenous ethnic group presents some challenges and opportunities that do not typically need to be considered when consulting with nonindigenous athletes. Māori are the indigenous ethnic group of New Zealand. To work as a sport psychology consultant with Māori athletes and indeed any indigenous athletes (e.g., Tahitian,First Nation Canadian Indian) it is important for the sport psychologist to have an understanding of Te Ao o Nga Tāngata Whenua (indigenous worldview) and tīkanga Tāngata Whenua (indigenous cultural practices; Hanrahan, 2004; Schinke & Hanrahan, 2009; Tuhiwai-Smith, 1999). Both research and practice in the social sciences regarding Māori people seek to use a Kaupapa Māori (Māori research and practice platform) approach. Kaupapa Māori attempts to ensure that culturalsensitivity is infused from the conceptualization of an intervention (e.g., psychological skills training, psychological intervention) through to the design, delivery, evaluation, final analysis, and presentation of the intervention or research project. A Kaupapa Māori approach to sport psychology consulting attempts to ensure that key Māori aspirations are honored and celebrated, as many Māori do not wish to follow a non-Māori ideology that depersonalizes the whānau (family) perspective and seeks individuality in its place (Durie, 1998a; Mead, 2003). Therefore, an effective sport psychology consulting program for an athlete who lives her or his life from a Te Ao Māori (Māori worldview) and tīkanga Māori (Māori cultural practices) perspective needs to be constructed as a Māori-for-Māori intervention based within a Kaupapa Māori framework.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)350-360
    JournalJournal of Clinical Sport Psychology
    Volume5
    Publication statusPublished - 2011

    Bibliographical note

    Reference text: References
    Abbott, M., & Durie, M. (1987). A whiter shade of pale: Taha Māori and professional psychology training. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 16, 58–71.
    Andersen, M.B. (1993). Questionable sensitivity: A comment on Lee and Rotella. The Sport Psychologist, 7, 1–3.
    Andersen, M.B. (2004). Transference and counter-transference. In G.S. Kolt & M.B. Andersen
    (Eds.), Psychology in the physical and manual therapies (pp. 71–80). Edinburgh, Scotland: Churchill Livingstone.
    Andersen, M.B., & Williams-Rice, B.T. (1996). Supervision in the education and training of sport psychology service providers. The Sport Psychologist, 10, 278–290.
    Best, E. (1974). The Māori as he was. A brief account of Māori life as it was in pre-European days. Wellington, NZ: A.R. Shearer, Government Printer.
    Bishop, R. (1996). Whakawhānaungatanga: Collaborative research stories. Palmerston North, NZ: Dunmore Press.
    Bishop, R. (1997). Māori people’s concerns about research into their lives. History of Education Reviews, 26, 25–41.
    Brougham, A.E., Reed, A.W., & Kāretu, T.S. (1992). Māori proverbs. Auckland, NZ: Octopus Publishing.
    Buck, P. (1949). The coming of the Māori. Wellington, NZ: Whitcombe &Tombs.
    Danish, S.J., Forneris, T., Hodge, K., & Heke, I. (2004). Enhancing youth development through sport. World Leisure, 3, 38–49.
    Durie, M.H. (1998a). Te Mana, Te Kawanatanga: The politics of Māori self-determination. Auckland, NZ: Oxford University Press.
    Durie, M.H. (1998b). Whaiora: Māori health development. Auckland, NZ: Oxford University Press.
    Durie, M.H. (2001). Mauri Ora: The dynamics of Māori health. Auckland, NZ: Oxford University Press.
    Glover, M., & Robertson, P. (1997). Facilitating development of Kaupapa Māori psychology. In H. Love, & W. Whittaker (Eds.), Practice issues for clinical and applied psychologists in New Zealand (pp. 136-146). Wellington, NZ: New Zealand Psychological Society.
    Gone, J.P. (2010). Psychotherapy and traditional healing for American Indians: Exploring the prospects for therapeutic integration. The Counseling Psychologist, 38, 166–235.
    Hanrahan, S. (2004). Sport psychology and indigenous performing artists. The Sport Psychologist,
    18, 60–74.
    Heke, J.I.C. (2005). Nga Hokowhitu o te Toru Mano: Naa te tarukino ki te taakaro whakaora ma ngaa Rangatahi Māori (Warriors of the third millennium: Designing a sporting intervention to address alcohol and substance abuse in adolescent Māori). Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. Dunedin, NZ: University of Otago.
    Heke, J.I.C., & Hodge, K. (2000, September). Nga Hokowhitu o te Toru Mano: Naa te tarukino ki te taakaro whakaora ma ngaa Rangatahi Māori (Warriors of the third millennium: Designing a sporting intervention to address alcohol and substance abuse in adolescent Māori). Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology, Nashville, TN.
    Heke, J.I.C., & Hodge, K. (2002, September). Hokowhitu: Māori life skills development. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology, Tucson, AZ.
    Herbert, A. (2002). Bicultural partnerships in clinical training and practice in Aotearoa/New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 31, 110–116.
    Hodge, K., Cresswell, S., Sherburn, D., & Dugdale, J. (1999). Physical activity-based lifeskills programs: Part II – Example programs. Physical Education NZ Journal, 32, 12–15.
    Karetu, T.S., Brougham, A.E., & Reed, A.W. (1999). The Reed book of Māori proverbs: Te kohinga whakatauki a Reed. Wellington: Reed Books.
    Kim, B.S.K. (2011). Client motivation and multicultural counseling. The Counseling Psychologist, 39, 267–275.
    Lloyd, A.P. (1987). Multicultural counseling: Does it belong in a counselor education program? Counselor Education and Supervision, 26, 164–167.
    McConnell, R. (2000). Māori, the treaty of Waitangi and sport: A critical analysis. In C. Collins (Ed.), Sport in New Zealand society (pp. 227-239). Palmerston North, NZ: Dunmore Press.
    Mead, S.M. (2003). Tikanga Māori: Living by Māori values. Wellington: Huia Publishers. Ministry of Health. (2002). He Korowai Oranga-Māori Health Strategy. Wellington, NZ: Ministry of Health.
    Moeke-Pickering, T.M., Paewai, M.K., Turangi-Joseph, A., & Herbert, A. (1998). Clinical psychology in Aotearoa/New Zealand: Indigenous perspectives. In A. S. Bellack, & M. Herson (Eds.), Comprehensive clinical psychology: Volume 3: Sociocultural and individual differences (pp. 349-355). Oxford, UK: Elsevier.
    Mohatt, G.V. (2010). Moving toward an indigenous psychotherapy. The Counseling Psychologist,
    38, 236–242.
    New Zealand Census. (2006). Māori population statistics. Retrieved March 18, 2011; from http://www.stats.govt.nz/census/2006censushomepage/quickstats/quickstats-about-asubject/
    maori.aspx
    O’Regan, T. (1987). Who owns the past? Change in Māori perceptions of the past. In J. Wilson (Ed.), From the beginning: The archaeology of the Māori (pp. 21-26). Dunedin, NZ: Otago University Press.
    Patterson, J. (1992). Exploring Māori values. Palmerston North, NZ: Dunmore.
    Pihama, L., Cram, F., & Walker, S. (2002). Creating methodological space: A literature review of Kaupapa Māori research. Canadian Journal of Native Education, 26, 30–43.
    Public Health Commission Report. (1994). Our health: Our future. Hauora pakari, koiora roa. The state of the public health in New Zealand. Wellington, NZ: Public Health.
    Rewi, P. (1992). Māori participation in physical activity (A summary report to the Hillary Commission), Ko te whai wahi o te iwi Maori ki nga hakinakina, 1, 47-105.
    Schinke, R.J., Michel, G., Gauthier, A.P., Pickard, P., Danielson, R., Peltier, D., et al. (2006). The adaptation to the mainstream in elite sport: A Canadian Aboriginal perspective. The Sport Psychologist, 20, 435–448.
    Schinke, R.J., & Hanrahan, S. (Eds.). (2009). Cultural sport psychology. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Smith, G.H. (1997). The development of Kaupapa Māori: Theory and praxis. IRI Ph.D. Thesis Series Number, 3, 24-31.
    Stokes, E. (1992). Māori research and development. In M. Hohepa, & G. Smith (Eds.), The issue of research and Māori (pp. 92-109). Auckland, NZ: Auckland University Press.
    Tapine, V., & Waiti, D. (1997). He tirohanga ki mua: Visions for Māori education. Wellington, NZ: NZCER.
    Tatz, C. (1995). Obstacle race: Aborigines in sport. Bedford Park, SA: MNSW Press.
    Te Puni Kokiri. (2000). Tikanga oranga hauora. Wellington, NZ: Ministry of Māori Development.
    Theokas, C., Danish, S., Hodge, K., Heke, I., & Forneris, T. (2007). Enhancing life skills through sport for children and youth. In N.L. Holt (Ed.), Positive youth development through sport (pp. 71–81). London, UK: Routledge.
    Tuhiwai-Smith, L. (1991). Te Rapunga i te ao marama: Māori perspective on research in education. In J. R. Morss, & T. J. Linzey (Eds.), The politics of human learning: Human development and educational research (pp. 46-55). Auckland, NZ: Longman Paul.
    Tuhiwai-Smith, L. (1999). Decolonising methodologies: Research and indigenous peoples. Dunedin, NZ: University of Otago Press.
    Tūta, E. (1995). The Māori athletes commission. Unpublished manuscript, Palmerston North, NZ: Massey University.
    van Meijl, T. (1994). The Māori as warrior: Ideological implications of a historical image. In T. van Meijl, & v. d. Grijp (Eds.), European imagery and colonial history in the Pacific (pp. 49-63). Saarbrucken: Nijmeegs Instituut voor Comparatieve Cuultuur- en Ontwikkelingsstudies.
    Waiti, J. (2003). Me pehea tatou?: An investigation of Māori sport psychology concepts. Unpublished Honors Thesis. Dunedin, NZ: University of Otago.
    Walker, R. (1989). Māori identity. In D. Novitz, & B. Willmott (Eds.), Culture and identity in New Zealand (pp. 120-149). Wellington, NZ: GP Books.
    Walker, R. (1990). Ka Whawhai Tonu Mātou - Struggle without end. Auckland, NZ: Penguin Books.
    Wall, M. (1997). Stereotypical constructions of the Māori ‘race’ in the media. New Zealand Geographer, 53, 40–45.
    Winstone, W., & Gervis, M. (2006). Counter-transference and the self-aware sport psychologist: Attitudes and patterns of professional practice. The Sport Psychologist, 20, 495

    Keywords

    • culture
    • indigenous
    • Māori
    • sport psychology
    • diversity

    Fingerprint

    Dive into the research topics of 'Sport Psychology Consulting With Indigenous Athletes: The Case of New Zealand Māori'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this