The influence of the liquid composition on the chemical and morphological properties of copper-based nanostructures synthesized by a non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma treatment is investigated and discussed. The synthesis approach is simple and environmentally friendly, employs a non-equilibrium nanopulsed atmospheric pressure plasma jet as a contactless cathode and a Cu foil as immersed anode. The process was studied using four distinct electrolyte solutions composed of distilled water and either NaClthinspace+thinspaceNaOH, NaCl only or NaOH only at two different concentrations, without the addition of any copper salts. CuO crystalline structures with limited impurities (e.g. Cu and Cu(OH)2 phases) were produced from NaClthinspace+thinspaceNaOH containing solutions, mainly CuO and CuCl2 structures were synthesized in the electrolyte solution containing only NaCl and no synthesis occurred in solutions containing only NaOH. Both aggregated and dispersed nanostructures were produced in the NaClthinspace+thinspaceNaOH and NaCl containing solutions. Reaction pathways leading to the formation of the nanostructures are proposed and discussed.
- Non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma
- Synthesis of nanostructures
- Plasma–liquid interactions
- Reaction pathways
- X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
- Transmission electron microscopy