The impact of family involvement on the investments of Italian small-medium enterprises in psychically distant countries

Gianpoalo Baroncelli, Christina Bettinelli, Barbara Del Bosco, Sharon Loane

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In this paper we investigate a sample of 122 Italian manufacturing small to medium-sized family firms, and analyse the effects of the degree of family involvement on their decisions to invest in psychically distant countries. Our findings indicate that higher family involvement tends to correspond to a lower number of foreign direct investments in psychically distant countries. Additionally, the firm’s age has a moderating effect on the relationship between family involvement and investments in psychically distant countries. When we analyse younger firms, family involvement turns out to be negatively associated with these investments, while this relationship is slightly positive when we consider older firms. These results allow us to move beyond family/non family owned comparative studies and provide a more nuanced view of family firm internationalization.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)960-970
JournalInternational Business Review
Volume25
Issue number4
Early online date18 Feb 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 31 Aug 2016

Bibliographical note

Reference text: Abdellatif et al., 2010
M. Abdellatif, M. Amann, J. Jaussaud
Family versus nonfamily business: a comparison of international strategies
Journal of Family Business Strategy, 2010 (2010), pp. 108–116

Article | Purchase PDF | View Record in Scopus | Citing articles (22)
Aganin and Volpin, 2003
Aganin, A., & Volpin, P.F. (2003). History of corporate ownership in Italy. ECGI Finance Working Paper No. 17/2003). Retrieved from http://ssrn.com/abstract=391180http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.391180 (last accessed: 10.02.15.).
Allison, 1999
P. Allison
Multiple regression: a primer
Pine Forge Press, Thousand Oaks, CA (1999)

Amatori et al., 2011
F. Amatori, M. Bugamelli, A. Colli
Italian firms in history: size, technology and entrepreneurship
Bank of Italy Economic History Working Papers, 13 (2011), pp. 1–53

View Record in Scopus | Citing articles (1)
Anwar and Tariq, 2011
S.T. Anwar, S.M. Tariq
Evolution of entrepreneurship and organizational configurations at Zildjian, 1623–2010
Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 9 (2011), pp. 175–194

View Record in Scopus | Full Text via CrossRef | Citing articles (2)
Arenius, 2005
P. Arenius
The psychic distance postulate revised: from market selection to speed of market penetration
Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 3 (2) (2005), pp. 115–131

View Record in Scopus | Full Text via CrossRef | Citing articles (26)
Arregle et al., 2012
J.L. Arregle, L. Naldi, M. Nordqvist, M.A. Hitt
Internationalization of family-controlled firms: a study of the effect of external involvement in governance
Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 36 (6) (2012), pp. 1115–1146

Bamberger and Pratt, 2010
P.A. Bamberger, M.G. Pratt
Moving forward by looking back: reclaiming unconventional research contexts and samples in organizational scholarship
Academy of Management Journal, 53 (4) (2010), pp. 665–671 http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMJ.2010.52814357

View Record in Scopus | Full Text via CrossRef | Citing articles (51)
Barba Navaretti et al., 2008
Barba Navaretti, G., Faini, R., & Tucci A. (2008). Does Family Control Affect Trade Performance? Evidence for Italian Firms. CentroStudi Luca d’Agliano Development Studies Working Paper No. 260 (http://ssrn.com/abstract=1399546).
Barba Navaretti et al., 2012
G. Barba Navaretti, M. Bugamelli, R. Cristadoro, D. Maggioni
Are firms exporting to China and India different from other exporters?
EFIGE Working Paper, 44 (May) (2012)

Beckerman, 1956
W. Beckerman
Distance and the pattern of intra-European trade
Review of Economics and Statistics, 28 (1956), pp. 31–40

View Record in Scopus | Full Text via CrossRef | Citing articles (133)
Berrone et al., 2010
P. Berrone, C. Cruz, L.R. Gómez-Mejía, M. Larraza-Kintana
Socioemotional wealth and corporate responses to institutional pressures: do family-controlled firms pollute less?
Administrative Science Quarterly, 55 (2010), pp. 82–113

View Record in Scopus | Full Text via CrossRef | Citing articles (180)
Berrone et al., 2012
P. Berrone, C. Cruz, L.R. Gómez-Mejía
Socioemotional wealth in family firms: Theoretical dimensions, assessment approaches, and agenda for future research
Family Business Review, 25 (2012), pp. 258–279

View Record in Scopus | Full Text via CrossRef | Citing articles (157)
Bettinelli et al., 2014
C. Bettinelli, A. Fayolle, K. Randerson
Family entrepreneurship: a developing field
Foundations and Trends® in Entrepreneurship, 10 (3) (2014), pp. 161–236

View Record in Scopus | Full Text via CrossRef | Citing articles (4)
Bhaumik et al., 2010
S.K. Bhaumik, N. Driffield, S. Pal
Does ownership structure of emerging-market firms affect their outward FDI? The case of the Indian automotive and pharmaceutical sectors
Journal of International Business Studies, 41 (3) (2010), pp. 437–450

View Record in Scopus | Full Text via CrossRef | Citing articles (55)
Brewer, 2007
P. Brewer
Operationalizing psychic distance: a revised approach
Journal of International Marketing, 15 (1) (2007), pp. 44–66

View Record in Scopus | Full Text via CrossRef | Citing articles (85)
Brush, 2012
C. Brush
International entrepreneurship (RLE International Business): the effect of firm age on motives for internationalization
Routledge, London, England (2012)

Calabrò et al., 2015
A. Calabrò, M. Brogi, M. Torchia
What does really matter in the internationalization of small and medium sized family businesses?
Journal of Small Business Management (2015) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jsbm.12165 Article first published online: 17 March 2015

Casillas et al., 2010
J.C. Casillas, A.M. Moreno, J.L. Barbero
A configurational approach of the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and growth of family firms
Family Business Review, 23 (2010) 27–44

Casillas and Acedo, 2005
J.C. Casillas, F.J. Acedo
Internationalization of Spanish family SMEs: an analysis of family involvement
International Journal of Globalisation and Small Business, 1 (2005), pp. 134–151

View Record in Scopus | Full Text via CrossRef | Citing articles (17)
CEPII, 2007
CEPII (2007). http://www.cepii.fr/CEPII/en/welcome.asp (last accessed 12.12.13.).
Cerrato and Piva, 2012
D. Cerrato, M. Piva
The internationalization of small and medium-sized enterprises: the effect of family management, human capital and foreign ownership
Journal of Management Governance, 16 (2012), pp. 617–644

View Record in Scopus | Full Text via CrossRef | Citing articles (14)
Chang et al., 2014
Y.-C. Chang, K. Ming-Sung, A. Kuo
The influences of governance quality on equity-based entry mode choice: the strengthening role of family control
International Business Review, 23.5 (2014), pp. 1008–1020

Article | Purchase PDF | View Record in Scopus | Citing articles (1)
Child et al., 2009
J. Child, J.G. Frynas, S.B. Rodriques
Psychic distance, its impact and coping modes: interpretations of SME decision makers
Management International Review, 49 (2) (2009), pp. 199–224

View Record in Scopus | Full Text via CrossRef | Citing articles (27)
Chrisman and Patel, 2012
J.J. Chrisman, P.C. Patel
Variations in R&D investments of family and nonfamily firms: behavioral agency and myopic loss aversion perspectives
Academy of Management Journal, 55 (4) (2012), pp. 976–997

View Record in Scopus | Full Text via CrossRef | Citing articles (99)
Claver et al., 2007
E. Claver, L. Rienda, D. Quer
The internationalization process in family firms: choice of market entry strategies
Journal of General Management, 33 (1) (2007), pp. 1–14

View Record in Scopus | Citing articles (20)
Claver et al., 2008
E. Claver, L. Rienda, D. Quer
Family firms’ risk perception: empirical evidence on the internationalization process
Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 15 (3) (2008), pp. 457–471

View Record in Scopus | Full Text via CrossRef | Citing articles (30)
Claver et al., 2009
E. Claver, L. Rienda, D. Quer
Family firms’ international commitment: the influence of family-related factors
Family Business Review, 22 (2009), pp. 125–135

View Record in Scopus | Full Text via CrossRef | Citing articles (36)
Crick and Jones, 2000
D. Crick, M.V. Jones
Small high-technology firms and international high-technology markets
Journal of International Marketing, 8 (2) (2000), pp. 63–85

View Record in Scopus | Full Text via CrossRef | Citing articles (193)
Cucculelli and Bettinelli, 2016
M. Cucculelli, C. Bettinelli
Corporate governance in family firms, learning and reaction to recession: evidence from Italy
Futures, 75 (2016), pp. 92–103

Article | Purchase PDF | View Record in Scopus | Citing articles (1)
Cucculelli et al., 2014
M. Cucculelli, L. Mannarino, V. Pupo, F. Ricotta
Owner-management, firm age, and productivity in Italian Family Firms
Journal of Small Business Management, 52 (2) (2014), pp. 325–343

View Record in Scopus | Full Text via CrossRef | Citing articles (4)
De Massis et al., 2014
A. De Massis, F. Chirico, J. Kotlar, L. Naldi
The temporal evolution of proactiveness in family firms: the horizontal S-curve hypothesis
Family Business Review, 27 (1) (2014), pp. 37–50

Dow and Karunaratna, 2006
D. Dow, A. Karunaratna
Developing a multi dimensional instrument to measure psychic distance stimuli
Journal of International Business Studies, 37 (2006), pp. 578–602

View Record in Scopus | Citing articles (187)
European Union, 2003
European Union (2003), Commission Recommendation of 6 May 2003 concerning the definition of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises, Official Journal of the European Union, L124/36.
Evans and Mavondo, 2002
J. Evans, F.T. Mavondo
Psychic distance and organizational performance: an empirical examination of international retailing operations
Journal of International Business Studies, 33 (3) (2002), pp. 515–532

View Record in Scopus | Full Text via CrossRef | Citing articles (171)
Faccio and Lang, 2002
M. Faccio, L.H.P. Lang
The ultimate ownership of Western European corporations
Journal of Financial Economics, 65 (2002), pp. 365–395

Article | Purchase PDF | View Record in Scopus | Citing articles (964)
Fernandez and Nieto, 2005
Z. Fernandez, M.J. Nieto
Internationalization strategy of small and medium-sized family business: some influential factors
Family Business Review, 18 (1) (2005), pp. 77–89

View Record in Scopus | Full Text via CrossRef | Citing articles (132)
Fernandez and Nieto, 2006
Z. Fernandez, M.J. Nieto
Impact of ownership on the international involvement of SMEs
Journal of International Business Studies, 37 (2006), pp. 340–351

View Record in Scopus | Full Text via CrossRef | Citing articles (119)
Fernandez and Nieto, 2014
Z. Fernandez, M. Nieto
Internationalization of family firms
L. Melin, M. Nordqvist, P. Sharma (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of family business, SAGE Publications Ltd, London (2014), pp. 403–423

Gallo and Garcia Pont, 1996
M.A. Gallo, C. Garcia Pont
Important factors in family business internationalization
Family Business Review, 9 (1) (1996), pp. 45–59

View Record in Scopus | Citing articles (69)
Gallo et al., 2004
M.A. Gallo, J. Tapies, K. Cappuyns
Comparison of family and nonfamily business: Financial logic and personal preferences
Family Business Review, 17 (2004), pp. 303–318

View Record in Scopus | Full Text via CrossRef | Citing articles (84)
George et al., 2005
G. George, J. Wiklund, S.A. Zahra
Ownership and the internationalization of small firms
Journal of Management, 31 (2) (2005), pp. 210–233

View Record in Scopus | Full Text via CrossRef
Gómez-Mejía et al., 2007
L.R. Gómez-Mejía, K.T. Haynes, M. Núñez-Nickel, K.J. Jacobson, J. Moyano-Fuentes
Socioemotional wealth and business risks in family-controlled firms: evidence from Spanish olive oil mills
Administrative Science Quarterly, 52 (1) (2007), pp. 106–137

View Record in Scopus
Gómez-Mejía et al., 2010
L.R. Gómez-Mejía, M. Makri, M. Larraza-Kintana
Diversification decisions in family-controlled firms
Journal of Management Studies, 47 (2) (2010), pp. 223–252

View Record in Scopus | Full Text via CrossRef
Gómez-Mejía et al., 2011
L.R. Gómez-Mejía, C. Cruz, P. Berrone, J. De Castro
The bind that ties: socioemotional wealth preservation in family firms
Academy of Management Annals, 5 (2011), pp. 653–707

View Record in Scopus | Full Text via CrossRef
Graves and Thomas, 2006
C. Graves, J. Thomas
Internationalization of Australian family businesses: a managerial capabilities perspective
Family Business Review, 19 (3) (2006), pp. 207–224

View Record in Scopus | Full Text via CrossRef
Graves and Thomas, 2008
C. Graves, J. Thomas
Determinants of the internationalization pathways of family firms: an examination of family influence
Family Business Review, 21 (2) (2008), pp. 151–167

View Record in Scopus | Full Text via CrossRef
Hakanson and Ambos, 2010
L. Hakanson, B. Ambos
The antecedents of psychic distance
Journal of International Management, 16 (3) (2010), pp. 195–210

Article | Purchase PDF | View Record in Scopus
Hofstede, 1991
G.H. Hofstede
Cultures and organizations: software of the mind
McGraw-Hill, Berkshire (1991)

Hofstede, 2001
G.H. Hofstede
Culture’s consequences: comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations
Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA (2001)

Hofstede et al., 2010
G. Hofstede, G.J. Hofstede, M. Minkov
Cultures and organizations: software of the mind
(3rd ed.)McGraw-Hill, USA (2010)

Jaccard et al., 1990
J. Jaccard, R. Turrisi, C. Wan
Interaction effects in multiple regression
Sage, London (1990)

James, 1999
H.S. James
Owner as manager, extended horizons and the family firm
International Journal of the Economics of Business, 6 (1999), pp. 55–69

View Record in Scopus
Johansson and Vahlne, 1977
J. Johansson, J.E. Vahlne
The internationalization process of the firm: a model of knowledge development and increasing foreign market commitments
Journal of International Business Studies, 8 (1) (1977), pp. 23–32

Johansson and Vahlne, 1990
J. Johansson, J.E. Vahlne
The mechanism of internationalization
International Marketing Review, 7 (4) (1990), pp. 11–24

Johansson and Vahlne, 2009
J. Johansson, J.E. Vahlne
The Uppsala internationalization process model revisited: from liability of foreignness to liability of outsidership
Journal of International Business Studies, 40 (9) (2009), pp. 1411–1431

Kamakura et al., 2012
W.A. Kamakura, M. Ramón-Jerónimo, J.D.V. Gravel
A dynamic perspective to the internationalization of small-medium enterprises
Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 40 (2) (2012), pp. 236–251

View Record in Scopus | Full Text via CrossRef
Kellermanns et al., 2008
F. Kellermanns, K. Eddleston, T. Barnett, A. Pearson
An exploratory study of family member characteristics and involvement: effects on entrepreneurial behavior in the family firm
Family Business Review, 21 (1) (2008), pp. 1–14

View Record in Scopus | Full Text via CrossRef
Kellermanns et al., 2012
F.W. Kellermanns, K.A. Eddleston, R. Sarathy, F. Murphy
Innovativeness in family firms: a family influence perspective
Small Business Economics, 38 (1) (2012), pp. 85–101

View Record in Scopus | Full Text via CrossRef
Kets de Vries, 1993
M.F.R. Kets de Vries
The dynamics of family controlled firms: the good and the bad news
Organizational Dynamics, 21 (3) (1993), pp. 59–71

Article | Purchase PDF | View Record in Scopus
Kim et al., 1993
W.C. Kim, P. Hwang, W.P. Burgers
Global diversification strategy and corporate profit performance
Strategic Management Journal, 10 (1993), pp. 45–57


Kogut, 1985
B. Kogut
Designing global strategies: profiting from operational flexibility
Sloan Management Review, 27 (1) (1985) 27–27


Kogut and Singh, 1988
B. Kogut, H. Singh
The effect of national culture on the choice of entry mode
Journal of International Business Studies, 19 (3) (1988), pp. 411–432


Kontinen and Ojala, 2010
T. Kontinen, A. Ojala
The internationalization of family businesses: a review of extant research
Journal of Family Business Strategy, 1 (2) (2010), pp. 97–107


Kontinen and Ojala, 2012
T. Kontinen, A. Ojala
Internationalization pathways among family-owned SMEs
International Marketing Review, 29 (5) (2012), pp. 496–518


Laufs and Schwens, 2014
K. Laufs, C. Schwens
Foreign market entry mode of small and medium-sized enterprises: a systematic review and future research agenda
International Business Review, 23 (2014), pp. 1109–1126


Le Breton-Miller and Miller, 2013
I. Le Breton-Miller, D. Miller
Socioemotional wealth across the family firm lyfe cycle: a commentary on ‘Family Business Survival and the Role of Boards’
Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice (2013), pp. 1391–1397


Lin, 2012
W.T. Lin
Family ownership and internationalization processes: internationalization pace, internationalization scope, and internationalization rhythm
European Management Journal, 30 (2012), pp. 47–56


Madsen and Servais, 1997
T.K. Madsen, P. Servais
The internationalization of born globals: an evolutionary process?
International Business Review, 6 (6) (1997), pp. 561–583


Middleton et al., 2011
S. Middleton, P.W. Liesch, J. Steen
Organizing time: internationalization narratives of executive managers
International Business Review, 20 (2) (2011), pp. 136–150


Majocchi and Zucchella, 2003
A. Majocchi, A. Zucchella
Internationalisation and performance
International Small Business Journal, 21 (3) (2003), pp. 249–268


Majocchi and Presutti, 2009
A. Majocchi, M. Presutti
Industrial clusters, entrepreneurial culture and the social environment: the effects on FDI distribution
International Business Review, 18 (1) (2009), pp. 76–88


Melis, 2000
A. Melis
Corporate governance in Italy
Corporate Governance: An International Review, 8 (2000), pp. 347–355


Merino et al., 2014
F. Merino, J. Monreal-Pérez, G. Sánchez-Marín
Family SMEs’ Internationalization: disentangling the influence of familiness on Spanish Firms’ export activity
Journal of Small Business Management (2014) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jsbm.12111


Miller and Breton-Miller, 2005
D. Miller, I.L. Breton-Miller
Managing for the long run: lessons in competitive advantage from great family businesses
Harvard Business Press, Cambridge, MA (2005)


Miller and Breton-Miller, 2006
D. Miller, I.L. Breton-Miller
Family governance and firm performance: agency, stewardship, and capabilities
Family Business Review, 19 (1) (2006), pp. 73–87


Miller et al., 2008
D. Miller, I.L. Le Breton-Miller, B. Scholnick
Stewardship vs. stagnation: an empirical comparison of small family and non-family businesses
Journal of Management Studies, 45 (1) (2008), pp. 50–78


Miller, 2011
D. Miller
Miller (1983) revisited: a reflection on EO research and some suggestions for the future
Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35 (5) (2011), pp. 873–894


Naldi et al., 2007
L. Naldi, M. Nordqvist, K. Sjoberg, J. Wiklund
Entrepreneurial orientation, risk taking, and performance in family firms
Family Business Review, 20 (2007), pp. 33–58


O’Grady and Lane, 1996
S. O’Grady, H. Lane
The psychic distance paradox
Journal of International Business Studies, 17 (2) (1996), pp. 309–333


Ojala and Tyrväinen, 2009
A. Ojala, P. Tyrväinen
Impact of psychic distance to the internationalization behavior of knowledge-intensive SMEs
European Business Review, 21 (3) (2009), pp. 263–277


Patel and Chrisman, 2014
P.C. Patel, J.J. Chrisman
Risk abatement as a strategy for R&D investments in family firms
Strategic Management Journal, 35 (4) (2014), pp. 617–627


Piva et al., 2013
E. Piva, C. Rossi-Lamastra, A. De Massis
Family firms and internationalization: an exploratory study on high-tech entrepreneurial ventures
Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 11 (2013), pp. 108–129


Pukall and Calabrò, 2014
T.J. Pukall, A. Calabrò
The internationalization of family firms: a critical review and integrative model
Family Business Review, 27 (2) (2014), pp. 103–125


SACE, 2014
SACE (2014) Rapporto Export SACE 2014–2017 accessed on http://www.sace.it/GruppoSACE/content/it/consumer/research/ (07.05.14.).

Salvato, 2004
C. Salvato
Predictors of entrepreneurship in family firms’
Journal of Private Equity, 7 (3) (2004), pp. 68–76


Sciascia et al., 2012
S. Sciascia, P. Mazzola, J. Astrachan, T. Pieper
The role of family ownership in international entrepreneurship: exploring non linear effects
Small Business Economics, 38 (1) (2012), pp. 15–31


Segaro et al., 2014
E.L. Segaro, J. Larimo, M.V. Jones
Internationalization of family small and medium sized enterprises: the role of stewardship orientation, family commitment culture and top management team
International Business Review, 23 (2) (2014), pp. 381–395


Sharma et al., 1997
P. Sharma, J.J. Chrisman, J.H. Chua
Strategic management of family business: Past research and future challenges
Family Business Review, 10 (1997), pp. 1–35


Sharma et al., 2014
P. Sharma, L. Melin, M. Nordqvist
Introduction: scope, evolution and future of family business studies
L. Melin, M. Nordqvist, P. Sharma (Eds.), Handbook of family business, Publications, SAGE, London, UK (2014)


Simon and Houghton, 2003
M. Simon, S.M. Houghton
The relationship among biases, misperceptions: and the introduction of pioneering products: examining differences in venture decision contexts
Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 27 (2003), pp. 105–124


Sirmon and Hitt, 2003
D.G. Sirmon, M.A. Hitt
Managing resources: linking unique resources, management, and wealth creation in family firms
Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 27 (4) (2003), pp. 339–358


Sirmon et al., 2008
D.G. Sirmon, J.L. Arregle, M.A. Hitt, J.W. Webb
The role of family influence in firms’ strategic responses to threat of imitation
Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 32 (6) (2008), pp. 979–998


Sorensen and Stuart, 2000
J.B. Sorensen, T.E. Stuart
Aging, obsolescence and organizational innovation
Administrative Science Quarterly, 45 (1) (2000), pp. 81–112


Sousa and Bradley, 2006
C.M.P. Sousa, F. Bradley
Cultural distance and psychic distance: two peas in a pod
Journal of International Marketing, 14 (1) (2006), pp. 49–70


Stamm and Lubinski, 2011
I. Stamm, C. Lubinski
Crossroads of family business research and firm demography—a critical assessment of family business survival rates
Journal of Family Business Strategy, 2 (3) (2011), pp. 117–127


Sullivan and Bauerschmidt, 1990
D. Sullivan, A. Bauerschmidt
Incremental internationalization: a test of Johansson and Vahlne’s thesis
Management International Review, 30 (1) (1990), pp. 19–30


The Hofstede Centre, 2014
The Hofstede Centre 2014. http://geert-hofstede.com/countries.html (last accessed 12.12.14.).

Thomas and Graves, 2005
J. Thomas, C. Graves
Internationalization of the family firm: the contribution of an entrepreneurial orientation
Journal of Business and Entrepreneurship, 17 (2) (2005), pp. 91–113


Thomsen and Pedersen, 2000
S. Thomsen, T. Pedersen
Ownership structure and economic performance in the largest European companies
Strategic Management Journal, 21 (2000), pp. 689–705


Tihanyi et al., 2005
L. Tihanyi, D.A. Griffith, C.J. Russell
The effect of cultural distance on entry mode choice international diversification, and MNE performance: a meta-analysis
Journal of International Business Studies, 36 (2005), pp. 1–14


UNCTAD, 2013
UNCTAD (2013). Global Value Chains: Investment and Trade for Development. New York United Nations.

Van Den Berghe and Carchon, 2003
L.A.A. Van Den Berghe, S. Carchon
Redefining the role and content of corporate governance from the perspective of business in society and corporate social responsibility
P. Cornelius, P. Kogut (Eds.), Corporate governance and capital flows in a global economy, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK (2003)


World Bank, 2014
World Bank (2014), http://data.worldbank.org/.

Wu et al., 2007
Z. Wu, J.H. Chua, J.J. Chrisman
Effects of family ownership and management on small business equity financing
Journal of Business Venturing, 22 (2007), pp. 875–895


Zahra et al., 2000
S.A. Zahra, R.D. Ireland, M.A. Hitt
International expansion by new venture firms: international diversity, mode of market entry, technological learning, and performance
Academy of Management Journal, 43 (5) (2000), pp. 925–950


Zahra, 2003
S.A. Zahra
International expansion of U.S. manufacturing family businesses: the effect of ownership and involvement
Journal of Business Venturing, 18 (2003) (2003), pp. 495–512


Zahra, 2005
S.A. Zahra
Entrepreneurial risk taking in family firms
Family Business Review, 18 (2005), pp. 23–40


Zucchella et al., 2007
A. Zucchella, G. Palamara, S. Denicolai
The drivers of the early internationalization of the firm
Journal of World Business, 42 (3) (2007), pp. 268–280

Keywords

  • Family business
  • Internationalisation
  • Psychic distance
  • FDI
  • SMEs

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'The impact of family involvement on the investments of Italian small-medium enterprises in psychically distant countries'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this