The Integration of Education and Peacebuilding: Synthesis Report on Myanmar, Pakistan, South Africa and Uganda

Alan Smith, Simone Datzberger, Alan McCully

Research output: Book/ReportCommissioned reportpeer-review

286 Downloads (Pure)


The purpose of this synthesis report is twofold. First, it examines how education is included in peacebuilding and development frameworks in four distinct conflict-affected environments (Myanmar, Pakistan, South Africa and Uganda). Second, it compares, summarises and critically reflects how education policies and governance contribute to the peacebuilding process. In doing so, we pay close attention to aspects of redistribution, representation, recognition and reconciliation (see: Novelli et al. 2015). Throughout the report we deliberately distinguish between explicit and implicit forms of peacebuilding through education. The former refers to activities such as peace education, peacebuilding training for teachers, programmes and initiatives purposely put in place for a conflictaffected society to come to terms with the legacies of a conflict. The latter, refers to policies, activities and programmes that may not be intentionally designed to build peace but indirectly impact processes of social transformation and change, necessary for sustainable peace and development.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages112
Publication statusPublished - 31 Mar 2016

Bibliographical note

Reference text: ACCS, 2013. Northern Uganda Conflict Analysis, Advisory Consortium on Conflict Sensitivity, Kampala. Available at: [Accessed October 31, 2014].
Alcott, B. & Rose, P., 2015. Schools and learning in rural India and Pakistan: Who goes where, and how much are they learning? PROSPECTS, 45(3), pp.345–363.
Alif Ailaan, 2014. 25 Million Broken Promises. The crisis of Pakistan’s out of school children., Islamabad. Available at: [Accessed January 25, 2016].
Altinyelken, H.K., 2010. Curriculum change in Uganda: Teacher perspectives on the new thematic curriculum. International Journal of Educational Development, 30(2), pp.151–161. Available at: [Accessed October 14, 2014].
Amnesty International, 2015. Pakistan Annual Report, Available at: [Accessed January 25, 2016].
Aragon, J. & Vegas, M., 2009. Governance Evidence in Peru: Production and Use in the Education Sector, Oslo. Available at: [Accessed January 25, 2016].
Barrows, W.L., 1976. Ethnic Diversity and Political Instability in Black Africa. Comparative Political Studies, 9(2), pp.139–170.
Berger-Schmitt, R., 2002. Considering Social Cohesion in Quality of Life Assessments: Concept and Measurement. Social Indicators Research, 58(1), pp.403–428.
Bhatti, M.A. et al., 2011. Problems in the Implementation of National Education Policies (NEPs) at Elementary Level. AEPAM Research Study No. 237, Islamabad. Available at: in the Implementation of National Education Policies at Elementary Level.pdf.
Bird, K. & Higgins, K., 2009. Conflict, education and the intergenerational transmission of poverty in Northern Uganda - Project Briefing No 23. Available at: [Accessed November 12, 2014].
Bird, K., Higgins, K. & McKay, A., 2011. Education and resilience in conflict - and insecurity-affected Northern Uganda, Manchester: Chronic Poverty Research Centre. Available at: [Accessed November 12, 2014].
Bourdieu, P., 2008. Political interventions: social science and political action, New York: Verso.
Burde, D. & Linden, L.L., 2013. Bringing Education to Afghan Girls: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Village-Based Schools. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 5(3), pp.27–40.
Burma Link, 2015. Internally Displaced in Burma. Available at: [Accessed February 2, 2016].
Burton, P. & Leoschut, L., 2013. School Violence in South Africa. Results of the 2012 National School Violence Study, Available at:
Bush, K.D. & Saltarelli, D., 2000. The two faces of education in ethnic conflict. Towards a Peacebuilding for Children., Florence. Available at: [Accessed November 10, 2014].
Cederman, L.-E., Weidmann, N.B. & Gleiditsch, K.S., 2011. Horizontal Inequalities and Ethnonationalist Civil War: A Global Comparison. American Political Science Review, 105(03), pp.478–495.
Center For Global Development, 2015. Aid to Pakistan by the Numbers. Available at: [Accessed January 3, 2016].
de Certeau, M., 1984. The Practice of Everyday Life: translated by Steven F. Rendall, Berkeley: University of California Press. [Accessed November 5, 2014].
CESR, 2013. Rapid Review of Myanmar Basic Education Policy and Proposed Way Forward, Yangon.
Collier, P. & Hoeffler, A., 2004. Greed and grievance in civil war. Oxford Economic Papers, 56(4), pp.563–595.
Coombs, P.H., Prosser, R.C. & Ahmed, M., 1973. New Paths to Learning: For Rural Children and Youth, London: ICED -International Council for Educational Development.
Cramer, C., 2006. Civil War Is Not a Stupid Thing. Accounting for Violence in Developing Countries. Available at: [Accessed January 25, 2016].
Dahl-Østergaard, T. et al., 2005. Lessons Learned on the Use of Power and Drivers of Change Analyses in Development Co-operation, Paris. Available at: [Accessed February 22, 2016].
Dale, R., 2005. Globalisation, knowledge economy and comparative education. Comparative Education, 41(2), pp.117–149.
Datzberger, S., McCully, A. & Smith, A., 2015. The Role of Education in Peacebuilding. Uganda Country Report. UNICEF PBEA Programme, Available at:
Davies, L., 2004. Education and Conflict: Complexity and Chaos., New York: Routledge.
Denney, L., 2011. Reducing poverty with teargas and batons: The security-development nexus in Sierra Leone. African Affairs, 110(439), pp.275–294. Available at: [Accessed June 2, 2015].
Department of Basic Educaiton, 2015. School Realities 2015., Pretoria.
Devries, K.M. et al., 2013. The Good Schools Toolkit to prevent violence against children in Ugandan primary schools: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial. Trials, 14, p.232.
Dryden-Peterson, S., 2009. Barriers to Accessing Primary Education in Conflict-Affected Fragile States, London.
Available at: [Accessed October 8, 2015].
Durrani, F., 2015. Pakistan far from meeting MDGs on primary education. The News International. Available at: [Accessed January 8, 2016].
Durrani, N. et al., 2016. Education and Social Cohesion in Pakistan: An Analysis of Policies, Teachers and Youth. Pakistan Country Report. UNICEF PBEA Programme. University of Sussex,
Research Consortium on Education and Peacebuilding The Integration of Education and Peacebuilding Synthesis Report 106
Durrani, N., 2008. Schooling the “other”: the representation of gender and national identities in Pakistani curriculum texts. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 38(5), pp.595–610.
Fair, C.C., 2013. Insights from a Database of Lashkar-e-Taiba and Hizb-ul-Mujahideen Militants. Journal of Strategic Studies, 37(2), pp.259–290.
FHI 360, 2015a. Does horizontal education inequality lead to violent conflict? UNICEF Learning for Peace, New York.
FHI 360, 2015b. Horizontal Inequality and Conflict. Uganda Case Study, North Carolina. Available at: [Accessed May 18, 2015].
FHI 360, 2015c. Investment in Equity and Peacebuilding - South Africa Case Study, Washington. Available at: [Accessed January 28, 2016].
Fisher, J., 2014. When it pays to be a “fragile state”: Uganda’s use and abuse of a dubious concept. Third World Quarterly, 35(2), pp.316–332. Available at: [Accessed October 29, 2014].
Fraser, N., 1995. From Redistribution to Recognition? Dilemmas of Justice in a “Post-Socialist” Age. New Left Review, 212, pp.68–93.
Fraser, N., 2005. Reframing Justice in a Globalizing World. New Left Review, (36), pp.69 – 88.
Galtung, J., 1976. Peace, War and Defense, Leiden: BRILL Publishers.
GCPEA, 2014. Education under Attack, Available at:
Green, A., Janmaat, J.G. & Preston, J., 2006. Education, Equality and Social Cohesion - A Comparative Analysis., London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Guloba, M., Magidu, N. & Wokadala, J., 2010. Public Spending in the Education Sector in Uganda: Evidence from Benefit Incidence Analysis. , p.30.
Gurr, T.R., 1993. Minorities at Risk. A Global View of Ethnopolitical Conflicts., Washington: U.S. Institute of Peace Press.
Higgins, S. et al., 2016. Education and peacebuilding in Myanmar. Research Consortium on Education and Peacebuilding. University of Amsterdam,
Human Rights Watch, 2015. What Are You Doing Here? Police Abuses Against Afghans in Pakistan., Available at: [Accessed April 4, 2016].
Idara-e-Taleem-o-Agahi, 2015. Annual Status of Educational Report-ASER-Pakistan 2014 National., Lahore. Available at:
Ignatieff, M., 2001. Introduction. In J. Edelstein, ed. Truth and Lies. Stories from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in South Africa. London: Granta, pp. 15–22.
Ikeya, C., 2008. The Modern Burmese Woman and the Politics of Fashion in Colonial Burma. The Journal of Asian Studies, 67(04), p.1277.
Insight on Conflict, 2014. Uganda: Conflict Profile. Available at: [Accessed November 1, 2014].
Irish Aid, 2014. Report to the Secretary General on Misappropriation of Funds in Uganda, Available at: https://www. [Accessed November 7, 2014].
Jenson, J., 2010. Defining and Measuring Social Cohesion: Social Policies in Small States Series (UNRISD), London: Commonwealth Secretariat.
Kaplan, S., 2012. Horizontal and Vertical Social Cohesion: Why the Difference Matters,. Blog Post. Available at: [Accessed April 10, 2016].
Kazianga, H. et al., 2013. The Effects of “Girl-Friendly” Schools: Evidence from the BRIGHT School Construction Program in Burkina Faso. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 5(3), pp.41–62.
Keen, D., 2012. Greed and grievance in civil war. International Affairs, 88(4), pp.757–777.
Knutzen, A. & Smith, A., 2012. Uganda Conflict Analysis,
Langer, A., Stewart, F. & Venugopal, R., 2011. Horizontal Inequalities and Post-Conflict Development, London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Lederach, J.P., 1997. Building Peace: Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies, Washington: United States Institute of Peace Press.
Lederach, J.P., 1995. Preparing for Peace: Conflict Transformation Across Cultures, Syracuse University Press.
van der Linden, J., 2015. Non-formal education and new partnerships in a (post-)conflict situation. International Journal of Educational Development, 42, pp.54–62. Available at: [Accessed May 13, 2015].
Lopes Cardozo, M.T.A., 2008. Sri Lanka: in peace or in pieces? A Critical Approach to Peace Education in Sri Lanka. Research in Comparative and International Education, 3(1), p.19.
Lopes Cardozo, M.T.A., Higgins, S. & Le Mat, M.L.J., 2016. Youth Agency and Peacebuilding: an analysis of the role of formal and non-formal education Synthesis report on findings from Myanmar, Pakistan, South Africa and Uganda. Research Consortium Education and Peacebuilding, University of Amsterdam,
Mayntz, R., 2009. Über Governance. Institutionen und Prozesse politischer Regelung., Frankfurt a. Main: Campus.
McCandless, E. & Smith, A., 2011. The Role of Education in Peacebuilding. Literature Review., Available at: [Accessed November 10, 2014].
McCully, A., 2012. History teaching, conflict and the legacy of the past. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 7, pp.145–159.
Messner, J.J. et al., 2015. Fragile State Index 2015, Washington.
MET&SHE, 2013. National Plan of Action 2016. Achieving Universal Primary Education in Pakistan. MDG Acceleration Framework, Islamabad. Available at:
Mncube, V. & Harber, C., 2012. The Dynamics of Violence in South African Schools., Available at: Dynamics of Violence in South African schools.pdf.
MoESTS Uganda, 2008. The Education Act 2008, Kampala, Uganda. Available at: [Accessed May 22, 2015].
MoF Pakistan, 2015. Pakistan Economic Survey 2014-2015, Islamabad. Available at:
MoFPED, 2015. Background to the Budget 2015/16 Fiscal Year,
Mosel, I. & Jackson, A., 2013. Sanctuary in the city? Urban displacement and vulnerability in Peshawar, Pakistan - HPG Working Papers, London. Available at: [Accessed April 4, 2016].
Myanmar Peace Monitor, 2014. Deciphering Myanmar’s Peace Process. A Reference Guide., Chiang Mai. Available at: [Accessed January 25, 2016].
Myrttinen, H., Naujoks, J. & El-Bushra, J., 2014. Re-thinking Gender in Peacebuilding., Available at: [Accessed August 6, 2015].
Namukasa, I. & Buye, R., 2007. Decentralization and Education in Uganda. Canadian and International Education /Education canadienne et internationale, 36(1), pp.33–116.
NESP, 2015. National Education Strategic Plan 2016-21 Comprehensive Education Sector Review Phase 3. MOE Department Myanmar,
New Deal, 2013. New Deal - Building Peaceful States - New Deal. Available at: [Accessed May 11, 2015].
Novelli, M., Higgins, S., et al., 2015. The Political Economy of Education Systems in Conflict-Affected Contexts: A rigorous literature review, London: DFID.
Novelli, M., 2011. The Role of Education in Peacebuilding. Methodological Framework for Three Country Case Studies., New York. Available at:
Novelli, M. & Lopes Cardozo, M.T.A., 2008. Conflict, education and the global south: New critical directions. International Journal of Educational Development, 28(4), pp.473–488.
Novelli, M., Lopes Cardozo, M.T.A. & Smith, A., 2015. A Theoretical Framework for Analysing the Contribution of Education to Sustainable Peacebuilding: 4Rs in Conflict-Affected Contexts., Available at:
Novelli, M. & Smith, A., 2011. The Role Of Education in Peacebuilding: A synthesis report of findings from Lebanon, Nepal and Sierra Leone, Available at: [Accessed June 2, 2015].
ODI, 2006. Universal Primary Education. Uganda. Policy Brief 10, London. Available at: [Accessed May 19, 2015].
OECD, 2011a. DAC Guidelines and Reference Series, Supporting Statebuilding in Situations of Conflict and Fragility., p.107. Available at: [Accessed May 6, 2015].
OECD, 2011b. Perspectives on Global Development 2012: Social Cohesion in a Shifting World, Paris. Available at: [Accessed January 25, 2016].
OECD, 2015. States of Fragility 2015, Paris. Available at: [Accessed March 28, 2016].
OECD StatExtracts, 2014. Uganda: Creditor Reporting System. Available at: [Accessed November 25, 2014].
OPHI, 2015. Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2015, Oxford. Available at:
Otim, M. & Kasande, S.K., 2015. ICTJ-Briefing-Uganda-On the Path to Vindicate Victim’s Rights in Uganda, Kampala. Available at: [Accessed November 19, 2015].
Pickett, K. & Wilkinson, R., 2010. The Spirit Level: Why Greater Equality Makes Societies Stronger, New York: Bloomsbury Press.
Rakabe, E., 2014. Equitable Resourcing of Schools for Better Outcomes. in: Technical Report: Submission for the Division of Revenue 2015/16, Midrand.
Refugee Act 2006, 2006. Uganda: The Refugee Act 2006. , p.26. Available at: [Accessed June 3, 2015].
Rizvi, F. & Lingard, B., 2009. Globalizing Education Policy, London: Routledge.
Rosenau, J.N. & Czempiel, E.-O., 1992. Governance without Government. Order and Change in World Politics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rutaremwa, G. & Bemanzi, J., 2013. Inequality in School Enrolment in Uganda among Children of Ages 6-17 Years: The Experience after Introduction of Universal Primary Education ∼ UPE. Science Journal of Education, 1(4), pp.43–50.
SAHRC and UNICEF, 2014. Poverty Traps and Social Exclusion Among Children in South Africa, Johannesburg. Available at: Traps Report.pdf [Accessed January 25, 2016].
Salmi, J., 2000. Violence, democracy, and education : an analytical framework., Washington. Available at: [Accessed October 5, 2015].
Save Children, 2012. Breaking the Cycle of Crisis. Learning from Save the Children’s delivery of education in conflict affected fragile states., London. Available at:
Sayed, Y. et al., 2016. Teachers and Youth as Agents of Social Cohesion in South Africa. South Africa Country Report. UNICEF PBEA Programme. University of Sussex.,
Sayed, Y. & Novelli, M., 2016. The Role of Teachers in Peacebuilding and Social Cohesion: A synthesis report of South Africa, Uganda, Pakistan and Myanmar case studies. Research Consortium on Education and Peacebuilding, University of Sussex.,
Shaw, T.M. & Mbabazi, P.K., 2007. Two Ugandas and a “Liberal Peace”? Lessons from Uganda about Conflict and Development at the Start of a New Century. Global Society, 21(4), pp.567–578.
Shlomo, R. & Schmida, M., 2009. Non‐formal education: a major educational force in the postmodern era. Cambridge Journal of Education, 39(2), pp.257–273.
Smith, A., Contemporary Challenges for Education in Conflict Affected Countries. Journal of International and Comparative Education, Volume 3(Issue 1).
Smith, A., 2010. The influence of education on conflict and peace building, Background paper prepared for the Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2011 The Hidden Crisis: Armed conflict and education, Paris: UNESCO Paris. Available at:,_Alan_(2010)_The_influence_of_ education_on_conflict_and_peace_building,_Background_paper_prepared_for_the_Education_for_All_Global_Monitoring_Report_2011_The_Hidden_Crisis_Armed_conflict_and_education,_Paris_UNESCO.pdf [Accessed January 9, 2015].
Smith, A. & Ellison, C., 2016. The Integration of Education and Peacebuilding: A Review of the Literature. UNICEF PBEA Programme. Ulster University.,
Smith, A. & Vaux, T., 2003. Education, Conflict and International Development. Available at: [Accessed November 10, 2014].
Social Watch, 2010. A grim perspective for Burmese of women., Available at: [Accessed January 9, 2016].
Spaull, N., 2013. South Africa’s Education Crisis: The Quality of Education in South Africa 1994-2011, Johannesburg.
Srivastava, P., 2013. Low-fee Private Schooling: issues and evidence. In P. Srivastava, ed. ow-fee Private Schooling: aggravating equity or mitigating disadvantage? Oxford Studies in Comparative Education Series. Oxford: Symposium Books, pp. 7–35.
Srivastava, P., 2015. Low-fee private schools and poor children: what do we really know? | Global Development Professionals Network | The Guardian. The Guardian. Available at: [Accessed January 8, 2016].
START, 2014. Terrorist Attacks on Educational Insitutions. Background Report., Available at: School Background Report December 2014.pdf.
Stewart, F., 2008. Horizontal Inequalities and Conflict, London: Palgrave Macmillan.
The Economist, 2015. Learning unleashed. Briefing: Low-cost private schools. The Economist, pp.17–20.
TRC South Africa, 1998. Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa Report. Volume One., Available at:
UBOS, 2012. Uganda Demographic and Health Survey 2011, Available at: [Accessed November 19, 2014].
UNESCO, 2015. EFA - Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2000 - 2015 (Summary), Paris. Available at: [Accessed June 1, 2015].
UNHCR, 2015. UNHCR - Uganda. Available at: [Accessed July 22, 2015].
UNICEF, 2014a. Key Concepts. , p.3. Available at: [Accessed January 25, 2016].
UNICEF, 2014b. Learning for Peace Advocacy Brief, New York. Available at: [Accessed June 1, 2015].
UNICEF, 2013. Research Briefing: Assessing Child Protection, Safety & Security Issues For Children in Ugandan Primary and Secondary Schools. , p.4. Available at: [Accessed August 6, 2015].
UNICEF, 2011. What does UNICEF means by equity approach? | Civil society partnerships | UNICEF. Available at: [Accessed January 25, 2016].
UNICEF and Learning for Peace, 2016. Gender, Education and Peacebuilding Brief, New York. Available at: [Accessed February 2, 2016].
Watchlist, 2009. No More Denial: Children Affected by Armed Conflict in Myanmar (Burma), Available at: [Accessed January 25, 2016].
Williams, J.H. & Cummings, W.C., 2015. Education from the Bottom Up: UNICEF’s Education Programme in Somalia. International Peacekeeping, 22(4), pp.419–434.
Yamin, S. & Malik, S., 2014. Mapping Conflict Trends in Pakistan | United States Institute of Peace, Washington. Available at: [Accessed April 4, 2016].


  • Education
  • conflict
  • peacebuilding
  • social cohesion
  • reconciliation
  • policy


Dive into the research topics of 'The Integration of Education and Peacebuilding: Synthesis Report on Myanmar, Pakistan, South Africa and Uganda'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this