The use of rapid point-of-care (PoC) diagnostics in conjunction with physiological signal monitoring has seen tremendous progress in their availability and uptake, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, to truly overcome infrastructural and resource constraints, there is an urgent need for self-powered devices which can enable on-demand and/or continuous monitoring of patients. The past decade has seen the rapid rise of triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) as the choice for high-efficiency energy harvesting for developing self-powered systems as well as for use as sensors. This review provides an overview of the current state of the art of such wearable sensors and end-to-end solutions for physiological and biomarker monitoring. We further discuss the current constraints and bottlenecks of these devices and systems and provide an outlook on the development of TENG-enabled PoC/monitoring devices that could eventually meet criteria formulated specifically for use in LMICs.