Update and guidance on management of myopia. European Society of Ophthalmology in cooperation with International Myopia Institute

janos nemeth, Beáta Tapasztó, Wagih A Aclimandos, Philippe Kestelyn, Jonas Jost, Jan-Tjeerd H N De Faber, Ingrida Januleviciene, Andrzej Grzybowski, Zoltán Zsolt Nagy, Olavi Pärssinen, Jeremy Guggenheim, Peter Allen, Rigmor Baraas, Kathryn J Saunders, Daniel Ian Flitcroft, Lyle Gray, Jan Roelof Polling, Annechien EG Haarman, J Willem L Tideman, James WolffsohnWahl, Jeroen A Mulder, Irina Yurievna S mirnova, Marino Formenti, Hema Radhakrishnan, Serge Resnikoff

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Abstract

The prevalence of myopia is increasing extensively worldwide. The number of people with myopia in 2020 is predicted
to be 2.6 billion globally, which is expected to rise up to 4.9 billion by 2050, unless preventive actions and interventions
are taken. The number of individuals with high myopia is also increasing substantially and pathological myopia is predicted to become the most common cause of irreversible vision impairment and blindness worldwide and also in Europe.
These prevalence estimates indicate the importance of reducing the burden of myopia by means of myopia control
interventions to prevent myopia onset and to slow down myopia progression. Due to the urgency of the situation,
the European Society of Ophthalmology decided to publish this update of the current information and guidance on
management of myopia. The pathogenesis and genetics of myopia are also summarized and epidemiology, risk factors,
preventive and treatment options are discussed in details.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages31
JournalEuropean Journal of Ophthalmology
Early online date5 Mar 2021
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 5 Mar 2021

Keywords

  • Myopia
  • atropine
  • blindness
  • myopia reduction interventions
  • orthokeratology
  • pathologic myopia
  • preventive medicine
  • time spent outdoors

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