to be 2.6 billion globally, which is expected to rise up to 4.9 billion by 2050, unless preventive actions and interventions
are taken. The number of individuals with high myopia is also increasing substantially and pathological myopia is predicted to become the most common cause of irreversible vision impairment and blindness worldwide and also in Europe.
These prevalence estimates indicate the importance of reducing the burden of myopia by means of myopia control
interventions to prevent myopia onset and to slow down myopia progression. Due to the urgency of the situation,
the European Society of Ophthalmology decided to publish this update of the current information and guidance on
management of myopia. The pathogenesis and genetics of myopia are also summarized and epidemiology, risk factors,
preventive and treatment options are discussed in details.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The author(s) declared the following potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: JBJ discloses patent application: “Agents for use in the therapeutic or prophylactic treatment of myopia or hyperopia” (European patent application 16 720 043.5 and US patent application US 2019 0085065 A1). AG reports grants from Alcon, Zeiss, Topcon, Bausch, personal fees, and non-financial support from Santen, Thea, Polpharma, and Pfizer, outside the submitted work. JAG is unpaid Consultant for CooperVision Inc. KJS is funded by Nevakar Inc as part of their EU/US low dose atropine trial. JRP is consultant for Nevakar. JSW is on the advisory board of Alcon, Nevakar, and Novars. SW is employee of Carl Zeiss Vision International GmbH. The other authors declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the authorship, and/or publication of this article.
The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: AG is funded by Institute for Research in Ophthalmology (Number: Unrestricted Grant 1/2020). JAG is funded by Welsh Government and Fight for Sight (Number: 24WG201). The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the online publication of this article: The open access fee for this publication is paid by the International Myopia Institute (IMI).
© The Author(s) 2021.
Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
- myopia reduction interventions
- pathologic myopia
- preventive medicine
- time spent outdoors